Graduate and Professional
School Retention Literature
Access 2000 data book: U.S. minority educational enrollment: Law school
application, enrollment, placement and teaching patterns. Available from
Association of American Law Schools, One Dupont Circle, Washington, D.C.
Adams, H.G. (1985). Successfully negotiating the graduate school process:
A guide for minority students. Notre Dame, IN: National Consortium for
Graduate Degrees for Minorities in Engineering.
Air, D.H., & Setter, C.B. (1988, Summer). "Your students-our students:
Counseling suggestions for medical school," The Advisor, 8, 6-10
Berg, H.M., & Ferber, M.A. (1983, November/December). "Men and women
graduate students: Who succeeds and why?" Journal of Higher Education,
Berryman, S.E. (1986). Representation of minorities in graduate management
training and management careers: Status, changes, and causes. Los Angeles:
Graduate Management Admissions Council.
Berryman, S.E. (1983). Who will do science? Minority and female attainment
of science and mathematics degrees: Trends and causes. The Rockefeller
Blackwell, J.E. (1987). Mainstreaming outsiders: The production of black
professionals. (2d ed.) Dix Hills, NY: General Hall.
Brown, S.V. (1987). Minorities in the graduate education pipeline. Educational
Chase, J.B., MacLaren, C.Bingham, G. and Nicholas, P. (1985). "Symposium:
Prevention of student attrition in medical school," Proceedings of the
twenty-fourth annual conference (pp. 287-295). Conference on Research in
Medical Education, 1985.
Clemendor, A.A., & Moore, O.N. (1978). "A premedical summer program
for disadvantaged students," Journal of Medical Education, 53, 658-660.
Clewell, B.C. (1987). Retention of Black and Hispanic doctoral students.
Princeton: Graduate Record Examination Board Research Report No. 83-4R
and ETS Report No. 87-10.
Clewell, B.C., and Joy, M. (1988). Policy considerations in the development
of programs to increase the enrollment and retention of Black and Hispanic
students in graduate schools of business. Available from Graduate Management
Admissions Council, 11601 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1060, Los Angeles,
Comment. (1968). "Anxiety and the first semester in law school," Wisconsin
Law Review. Cureton-Russell, M.T. (ed.). (1988). Minority student opportunities
in United States medical schools: 1988-89. Washington, D.C.: Association
of American Medical Colleges.
Destination MBA: A guide for minorities. (1988). Available from the Graduate
Management Admissions Council, 11601 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1060, Los
Angeles, CA, 90026.
Eckenfels, E.J., Blacklow, R.S., and Gotterer, G.S. (1984). "Medical student
counseling: The Rush Medical College admissions program," Journal of Medical
Education, 59, 573-581.
Finke, C.L. (1984). "Affirmative action in law school academic support
programs," Journal of Legal Education, 39, 55-70.
Fogleman, B.S., & Saeger, W. (1985). "Examining Sedlacek's nontraditional
variables of minority student success in a summer enrichment program for
health careers," Journal of the National Medical Association, 78, 545-549.
Frierson, H.T. (1979). "Retention efforts involving students who have experienced
academic difficulty," Health Pathways, 2(1).
Frierson, H.T. (1984). "Impact of intervention program on minority medical
students' National Board Part I performance," Journal of the National Medical
Association, 76(12), 1185-1190.
Frierson, H.T. (1987). "Combining test-taking intervention with course
remediation: Effects on national boards subtest performance," Journal of
the National Medical Association, 79, 161-165.
Fulop, N. (1970). "The 1969 CLEO Summer Institute reports: A summary,"
Toledo Law Review, 633-678.
Girves, J.E. and Wemmerus, V. (1988). "Developing models of graduate student
progress," Journal of Higher Education, 59(2), 163-189.
Gunn, C.S. and Sanford, T.R., (1988). "Doctoral student retention," College
and University, 63, 374-382.
Hampden, B.S. (1989). "Preparing undergraduate minority students for the
law school experience," Seton Hall Legislative Journal, 12, 207-231.
Hartnett, R.T. (1981, June). Sex differences in the environments of graduate
students and faculty. GRE Board Research Report, No. 77-26R, Research Report
Health Resources and Services Administration of the United States Department
of Health and Human Services. (1988). Health Careers Opportunity Program
(HCOP) Digest. (U.S. Government Printing Office 1988: 201-875/93655).
Henderson, W.J., and Flores, L. (1981). "Implications for affirmative action
after Bahke: Preliminary analysis of academic and bar performance of Council
on Legal Education Opportunity Fellows, 1968-78. In D.M. White (ed.). Towards
a diversified legal profession: An inquiry into the law school admission
test, grade inflation, and current admissions policies (pp. 1-65). San
Francisco: Julian Richards Associates.
Hendren, R.L. (1988). "Predicting success and failure of medical students
at risk for dismissal," Journal of Medical Education, 63, 596-602.
Hobish, T. (1979). Psychological predictors of attrition in doctoral study:
The ABD phenomenum. ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED 188 522.
Hojat, M., Veloski, J.J., and Zeleznik, C. (1985). "Predictive validity
of the MCAT for students with two sets of scores," Journal of Medical Education,
Johnson, D.G., & Hutchins, E.G. (1966). "A study of medical student
attrition," Journal of Medical Education, 41, 1139-1155.
Jones, R.F., & Vanyur, S. (1984). "MCAT scores and student progress
in medical school," Journal of Medical Education, 59, 527-531.
Jones, R.F., & Thomas-Forgues, M. (1984). "Validity of the MCAT in
predicting performance in the first two years of medical school," Journal
of Medical Education, 59, 455-464.
Josiah Macy Foundation. (1977). Minorities in medicine. Baltimore: Port
Kerbeshian, L.A. (1989). "Predicting and fostering success of American
Indians in medical school," Academic Medicine, 64, 396-400.
Kowalik, T.F. (1989). "What we know about doctoral student persistence,"
Innovative Higher Education, 13, 163-171.
Langenbach, M. and Korhonen, L. (1988). "Persisters and non-persisters
in a graduate level, non-traditional, liberal education," Adult Education
Quarterly, 38, 136-148.
Leonard, D.P. (1987). "Personal and institutional benefits of offering
tutorial services to students experiencing academic difficulty," Journal
of Legal Education, 37, 91-96.
Leonard, W.J. (1970, Spring-Summer). "Placement and the minority [law]
student: New pressures and old hang-ups," Toledo Law Review, 583-587
Lesser, E.K., Demuth, G.W., and Rogowsky, L. (1987). "Academic difficulty
of women, minority and older medical student subgroups: A study of incidence
and recovery," Journal of the National Medical Association, 79, 1145-1151.
Levine, H.G., Williams, Jr., L.B., & Bruhn J.G. (1976). "Six years
of experience with a summer program for minority students," Journal of
Medical Education, 51, 735-742.
Livingston, S.A., & Turner, N.J. (1982, February). Effectiveness of
the Graduate Record Examinations for predicting first-year grades. Educational
Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.
Lloyd, S.M. (1989). "Black student enrollment in United States medical
schools," Journal of the American Medical Association, 261(2), 272-274.
McDavis, R.J., Molden, I.T. and Wilson, S.R. (1989). "Summer programs:
A method for retaining Black graduate students," Journal of College Student
Development, 30, 272-75.
McGlinn, S. and Jackson, E.W. (1989). "Predicting the medical school progress
of minority students who participated in a preparatory program," Academic
Medicine, 64, 164-66.
Milstein, R.M., Wilkinson, L., Burrow, G.N., & Kessen, W. (1981). "Admission
decisions and performance during medical school," Journal of Medical Education,
Minorities in Graduate Management Education. (1986). Selections: The Magazine
of the Graduate Management Admissions Council. Available from the Graduate
Management Admissions Council, 11601 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 1060, Los
Angeles, CA, 90026.
"Minority attrition in law school," (1987). Journal of Legal Education,
"Missing minorities: How business schools find them and keep them," (1988).
Newsline, 19(1), 7-12. American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business.
Murden, G., Galloway, G.M., Reid, J.C., & Colwill, J.M. (1978). "Academic
and personal predictors of clinical success in medical school," Journal
of Medical Education, 53, 711-719.
Murphy, L.P., & McNair, E.W. (1981). "Summer program in medical school
environment for undergraduate students: An evaluation," Journal of Negro
Education, 50, 407-414.
National Board on Graduate Education. (1976). Minority group participation
in graduate education. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.
Neely, D.E. (1986). "Minority participation in legal education: Innovative
approaches to racial parity," University of San Francisco Law Review, 20,
Nettles, M.T. (1987). Financial Aid and Minority Participation in Graduate
Education. Princeton: Educational Testing Service.
Nowacek, G., Pullen, E., Short, J. & Blummer, H.N. (1987). "Communications:
Validity of MCAT scores as predictors of pre-clinical grades and NBME Part
I examination scores," Journal of Medical Education, 62, 989-991.
Odegaard, C.E. (1977). Minorities in Medicine: From Receptive Passivity
to Positive Action, 1966-1976. New York: Josiah Marcy Jr. Foundation.
Olson, C. (1988). "Recruiting and retaining minority graduate students:
A systems perspective," Journal of Negro Education, 57, 31-42.
Ott, M.D., Markewich, T.S. and Ochsner, N.L. (1984). "Logic analysis of
graduate student retention," Research in Higher Education, 21, 439-460.
Panella, V., and McPherson, J. (1970). "Do you see what I see? Two writers
look at CLEO," University of Toledo Law Review, 559-587.
Patton. (1968). "The student, the situation, and performance during the
first year of law school," Journal of Legal Education, 21,
Payne, J.L., Nowacki, C.M., Girotti, J.A., Townsel, J., Plagge, J.C., and
Bechham, T.W. (1986). "Increasing the graduation rates of minority medical
students," Journal of Medical Education, 61, 353-358.
Perry, R.R., Philips, B.U., & Mahan, J.M. (1976). "A follow-up evaluation
of a summer health career program for minority students," Journal of Medical
Education, 51, 175-180.
Pinderhughes (1971). "Increasing minority group students in law schools:
The rationale and the critical issues," Buffalo Law Review, 20, 447, 451-457.
Pisano, J.C., & Epps, A.C. (1983). "The impact of a medical-school-based
summer program on the acceptance of minority undergraduate students into
health professional schools," Journal of the National Medical Association,
Powers, D.E. (1984). "Differential trends in law grades of minority and
non-minority law students," Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 488-499.
Pruitt, A.S., and Issac, P.D. (1985). "Discrimination in recruitment, admission
and retention of minority graduate students," Journal of Negro Education,
Quezada, R., Loheyde, K.J., and Kacmarczyk, R. (1984). "The Hispanic women
graduate student: Barriers to mentoring in higher education," Texas Tech
Journal of Education, 11, 235-241.
Rappaport, M.D. (1975). "The Legal Education Opportunity Program at UCLA:
Eight years of experience," Black Law Journal, 4, 506-518.
Reid, J.C., & Blain, B.B. (1977). "Identifying students who will be
in academic difficulty in medical school," Journal of Medical Education,
Report on the LSAC Minority Enrollment Challenge Grant Program. (1987).
Available from the Association of American Law Schools, One Dupont Circle,
Ripps, S.R. (1986). "A curriculum course designed for lowering the attrition
rate for the disadvantaged law student," Howard Law Journal, 29, 457-480.
Rodriguez, J.E., et al. Faculty mentoring of minority graduate and professional
students: The Irvine experiment. Division of Graduate Studies and Research,
University of California, Irvine.
Rodriguez, R. (1991, August 1). "Minority educational path to legal careers
in peril due to federal cuts," Black Issues in Higher Education, 3-4.
Romero, L.M. (1984). "An assessment of affirmative action in law school
admissions after fifteen years: A need for recommitment," Journal of Legal
Education, 34, 430-436.
Romero, L.M., Delgado, R. and Reynoso, C. (1975). "The legal education
of Chicano students: A study in mutual accommodation and cultural conflict,"
New Mexico Law Review, 5, 177-231.
Rosen, S.J. (1970). "Equalizing access to legal education: Special programs
for law students who are not admitted by traditional means," University
of Toledo Law Review, 321-376.
Ross, M. (1983, October 29). "Predictive value of selection interviews
in success in first-year medicine," The Medical Journal of Australia, 423-424.
Sakamoto, K.K. (1992). "Learning styles of medical school students in a
problem-based learning model," Journal of College Reading and Learning,
Sarnacki, R.E. (1982). "The predictive value of the premedical grade-point
average," Journal of Medical Education, 57, 163-169.
Schwartz, B.J., & Snow, L.H. (1974). "On getting kicked out of medical
school," American Journal of Psychotherapy, 28, 574-583.
Strayhorn, G. and Frierson, H. (1989). "Assessing correlations between
Black and White students' perceptions of the medical school learning environment,
their academic performances and their well-being," Academic Medicine, 64,
Support programs in legal writing curricula. (1987). Newsletter of the
Section of Legal Writing, Reasoning and Research of the American Bar Association.
Thomas, G.E. (1987). "Black students in United States graduate and professional
schools in the 1980's: A national and institutional assessment," Harvard
Education Review, 57, 261-282.
Tristan, M.P., Pavlik, V.N., Rankin, B.B., Lester, J., & Vallbona,
C. (1981). "Review of a program for premedical minority students," Texas
Medicine, 77, 51-54.
"Tulane U.'s minority students receive lavish encouragement to attend graduate
school and move on to academic careers," (1990, March 14). The Chronicle
of Higher Education, A19, A22.
Ugbolue, A., Whitley, P.N., and Stevens, P.J. (1987). "Evaluation of a
pre-entrance enrichment program for minority students admitted to medical
school," Journal of Medical Education, 62, 8-16.
Virgil, R.L., and Early, I.H. (1986). "The consortium for graduate study
in management," Selections, The Magazine of the Graduate Management Admissions
Council, Special Edition, Wangerin, P.T. (1989). "Law school academic support
programs," Hastings Law Journal, 40, 771-803.
Wangerin, P.T. (1988). "Learning strategies for law students," Albany Law
Review, 52, 471-528.
Weston, J.A. and Dubousky, S.L. (1984). "Evaluating medical school results
of a reduced course program: A preliminary report," Journal of Medical
Education, 59, 1-6.
Wilson, R. (1988). "Developing leadership: Blacks in graduate and professional
schools," Journal of Black Studies, 19, 36-43.July 15, 1992