Supplemental Instruction / Video Supplemental Instruction

Annotated Bibliography

Revised July, 2010

 

International Center for Supplemental Instruction

University of Missouri-Kansas City

Academic Support and Mentoring

5014 Rockhill Road, SASS Building 210

Kansas City, MO 64110-2499

(816) 235-1174

(816) 235-5156 (FAX)

http://www.umkc.edu/asm/si/


 

Note to Reader: When possible, original text from the author's document overview or summary paragraphs were used in this annotated bibliography. If the reader is aware of other SI/VSI publications not included in this document or have suggestions for corrections to the annotations, please contact Marion Stone at 816-235-5758, E-mail: stonema@umkc.edu

 

Due to copyright limitations, we are not able to provide copies of articles cited in this list. Please consult your local library for instructions on how to obtain the articles in which you are interested.




 

Table of Contents

 







 

Section One: Dissertations and Thesis Papers



 

Anker, E. O. (1991). Supplemental Instruction: An answer for the at-risk student in a high-risk course? Unpublished Master's of Arts (M.A.T.) thesis, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI. Available: Interlibrary loan from Calvin College and Theological Seminary, Grand Rapids, MI.
This research paper studied the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) during Spring 1991 at Calvin College in Grand Rapids, MI. Areas for study included: final course grades for "at risk" students; and relationships among the level of SI attendance, academic ability, and final course grades. Special admit "at risk" students were the focus of the study. A study skills class was paired with a content course (e.g., History 101) in Fall 1990 to provide academic assistance for students. The at risk students were required to enroll in the non-credit course. Thirteen special admit students from Fall 1990 were enrolled in the paired class. In Spring 1991 seven special admit students instead participated in SI rather than being enrolled in a paired study skills class. There was no significant difference regarding final course grades. Individual SI attendance for SI ranged from three to 17 for the 18 sessions offered during Spring 1991. The mean average was 8.7 sessions. There was a positive correlation between higher levels of attendance and higher academic achievement. The researcher suggested that SI was more helpful to participating students than a paired study skills course.

Ashwin, P. W. H. (1993). Supplemental Instruction: Does it enhance the student experience of higher education? Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Kingston University, London, England
This doctoral dissertation is concerned with the student experience of Higher Education in Britain that is influenced by Supplemental Instruction (SI). The qualitative research study of SI's impact in two classes (Applied Social Science and Computer Science) at Kingston University (UK) included interviews with SI leaders and questionnaires of first year students who were enrolled in the two classes. The purpose of this case study was to examine to what extent the educational theory of SI was matched by the student experience of it. Qualitative research suggests that SI was beneficial to students who took advantage of the service. SI leaders listed the following benefits of the program for themselves: increased confidence, greater sense of community between different years of the course, greater understanding of the material they were facilitating, and increased interest by potential employers because of the cocurriculuar nature of the SI leader experience.

Campbell, M. L. (1994). The cognitive effect of Supplemental Instruction on student achievement in general biology. Unpublished Master's of Education thesis (M.Ed.), Slippery Rock University, PA: Available: Interlibrary loan from Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania.

Carson, D., & Plaskitt, N. (1994). A descriptive study of the attitudes of first year students at the University of Port Elizabeth toward Supplemental Instruction and evaluation thereof. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth, Republic of South Africa.
This dissertation study of Supplemental Instruction (SI) was conducted at the University of Port Elizabeth in the Republic of South Africa. The study examined students' perceptions of the effectiveness of SI in helping them to acquire skills such as critical thinking, essay writing, and reading of textbooks. The study surveyed Sociology and Economics students' perceptions of the values of SI and found that students perceived four main reasons why SI is effective: improvement of learning ability; increased interest in the subject; a forum to meet new friends; and SI leader support. A need for greater structure within SI sessions was offered as the most common response for improvement of SI.

Clark, L. R. Outcomes of Supplemental Instruction for History 1310 and 1320 at Southwest Texas State University. Unpublished Masters of Arts Thesis, Southwest Texas State University, San Marcos, TX. Available: Interlibrary loan from Albert B. Alkek Library, Southwest Texas State University, San Marcos, TX.
This study sheds light on the effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in achieving student academic goals, enhancing student performance in difficult entry level college classes and impacting the success of students with varying abilities between Fall 1995 and Spring 1997 at Southwest Texas State University in History 1310 and History 1320. SI participants out-performed non-SI participants on the three academic outcomes examined: final course grades (mean grade difference: 2.91 vs. 2.17 and rate of A, B, or C: 95.5% vs. 73.3%), D or F course rates (18.9% vs. 37.0%), and institutional persistence (81.1% vs. 63.0%). SI attendance was defined as attending five or more times during the academic term. SI was equally effective with general (2.91 vs. 2.17), non-traditional (2.89 vs. 2.44) and part-time (2.78 vs. 1.90) populations. This research also indicated minority students participated in SI in greater proportions than non-minority students. A significant cross-over or repeat SI population was found. This research concluded that participation in SI result in higher final course grades and successful course completion; the resulting grade improvement is reflected in improved retention (84.2% vs. 72.6%). The researcher noted that the impact of SI may be understated due to analysis of entry level characteristics of the students that suggest that the SI participants tend to be less academically prepared than the non-SI participants (lower high school rank and SAT scores).

Collins, N., & Ronaldson, A. (1995). Supplemental Instruction: Its effectiveness within the ambit of the Social Work Department of the University of Port Elizabeth. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth, Republic of South Africa.
This dissertation examines the effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at the University of Port Elizabeth in the Republic of South Africa. This study replicates findings from a dissertation by Carson and Plaskitt (1994) from the same institution. Two additional reasons were identified by Collins and Ronaldson concerning reasons for the effectiveness of SI: easy participation in SI sessions and adjustment to university life. They concluded that the focus of SI correlates with the needs of students and that SI has helped students to develop important skills, for example, understanding key concepts, lecture note taking, understanding the textbooks and exam preparation. Depending upon the structure of the course, SI participants reported wanting varying levels of structure during the SI sessions. Some students wanted open agendas for the group to select the areas covered and processes used. Other students reported wanting more structure in the SI sessions from the SI leader.

Davis, E. E. (1999). Student mentors: Experiences of being a Supplemental Instruction leader. Unpublished Master of Science Thesis, Indiana University.
The purpose of this Master Thesis was to examine the experience of serving as a Supplemental Instruction (SI) Leader upon the individual at Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI). A qualitative research study was conducted of SI leaders during Fall 1997. Some common benefits cited were improved: communication skills, problem solving skills, subject matter knowledge, people skills, friendships, knowledge of campus layout and resources, time management skills, involvement and knowledge of campus activities, leadership skills, and feelings of connection to the campus. Some mentioned that SI opened doors to new experiences that drew them closer to their desired career goal.

Douma, S. R. (1988). Supplemental Instruction: An alternate approach. Unpublished master's thesis (M.S.), Mankato State University, Mankato, MN. Available: Interlibrary loan from Mankato State University, Mankato, MN.
This Master of Science thesis study from 1986 had two purposes. The first was to provide a descriptive review of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program (e.g., program overview, SI leader training program). The second purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of SI at Southwest State University (MN) during Fall 1986, Winter 1987 and Spring 1987. Between 36 to 42 percent of students participated in the SI program. Findings include the following: 1) SI participants earned a higher final course grade. F86, 2.34 vs. 2.01, W87, 2.31 vs. 2.01, S87, 2.55 vs. 2.04. 2) SI participants earned a higher rate of A and B final course grades. F86, 42% vs. 31%, W87, 41% vs. 35%, S87, 54% vs. 36%. 3) SI participants earned a lower rate of D and F final course grades or withdrawals: F86, 21% vs. 33%, W87, 21% vs. 35%, S87, 19% vs. 35%. Several data tables from an article by Blanc, DeBuhr, and
Martin (1983) are reproduced in this report. Individual course reports from Southwest State University that were used to generate the previous summary research studies are included: Natural Science, Biology I, Food for Thought, Everyday Chemicals, Accounting I, Introductory Algebra, Business Statistics I, General Psychology I, A.C. Circuits, Critical Thinking, and General Biology II.

Eberling, D. J. (1998). A comparison of the effectiveness of study strategies instruction with community college students (Doctoral dissertation, Ph.D., University of Houston, 1998). Dissertation Abstracts International, 59(03), 705A
College students who use study strategies effectively are more successful in school than are those who are unaware of study strategies, or who use such strategies infrequently. There is a relationship between poor performance in school and inadequate study strategies. Fortunately, study strategies can be taught. The purpose of this dissertation study was to investigate the relation between grade point average and study habits and attitudes. Also, to examine the effectiveness of a study strategies course and the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program with community college students ' study habits and attitudes. Volunteers for the study completed a pre and post test of the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes (SSHA). Small sample size (n=10) may have played a role in clouding results of the research. Most students refused to participate in the study by permitting access to course grades and other vital information variables. With this SI program, attendance in SI sessions was not tracked and therefore the quantity of SI attendance was not available as an independent variable which has been used with many other published studies. With the small remaining group of voluntary study participants, a comparison of the students' grade point average and scores on the SSHA did not reveal significance. The scores on the SSHA and the comparison between the study strategies course and the SI program revealed no significant difference between the treatment groups.

Edelson, M. (1996). A student's experience of the Supplemental Instruction programme and the first year of university: A case study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth, Republic of South Africa.

Fisher, J. E. (1997). Effects of Supplemental Instruction on undergraduate academic achievement, motivational orientation, and learning strategies (Doctoral dissertation, Ph.D., Auburn University, 1997). Dissertation Abstracts International, 58(10), 3831A
Examined in this dissertation study were the effects of participation in a Supplemental Instruction (SI) program on student academic achievement, motivational orientation, and learning strategies in a core psychology course at Auburn University. Participants in this study were 381 undergraduate students divided into one treatment and two comparison groups. Students in the treatment group participated in SI outside of regular class time once a week for 9 weeks. Both the treatment and comparison groups were administered four items: a course content knowledge pretest, the Halpin and Halpin Demographic Survey (1996), the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (1994), and a course content knowledge posttest. Both the pretest and posttest were teacher-made tests assessing knowledge of course content. An initial cross-tabulation frequency distribution followed by a chi-square supported the assumption that the two groups were equal on course entry demographic variables. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) conducted with pretest scores revealed that there were no significant differences across groups in pre-entry content knowledge prior to the treatment. Once the study was completed, a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted revealing that there were differences between the groups. On two variables, peer learning and help seeking, significant differences were found in favor of the SI treatment group. The groups did not differ on the other motivation and learning strategies subscales or on the posttest measuring academic achievement. Several research design features were unusual with this study. Most SI studies limit possible variables that might influence student achievement. Therefore, most research designs limit analysis to a single course, one course instructor, one SI leader, analysis of actual course grades, and provide no additional academic enrichment activities in the class. Numerous limitations were listed by the researcher in the dissertation. 1) The actual final course grades of the students were not used, but rather a teacher-made posttest that was one part of the final course grade. 2) To increase sample size, additional sections of the same course were added to the study even through SI was not available to them and the course sections were taught by other professors who may employ different approaches to the curriculum, grading, and instructional delivery. 3) Ten SI leaders were employed in one course section. 4) All students in the course also participated in mandatory discussion sessions conducted each week. Fifteen graduate teaching assistants conducted these sessions in the three course sections. 5) All students who scored high on the course pretest were given an "A" final course grade and were dismissed from the course. This excluded their potential involvement in SI sessions and providing additional successful student modeling other than the SI leader. 6) Students were not allowed to attend SI sessions more than once a week. Students who needed additional help were denied the assistance. 7) Since the pre/post test was teacher-made, there is no way to judge its validity as an instrument. 8) The final exam was optional for students. If students already had an "A" average, they could skip the exam, therefore they were then excluded from the study. Students who needed a few points to earn a "B" only needed to correctly answer enough questions on the posttest exam to earn a "B" final grade, even though they might have earned a "D" or "F" on the final exam.

Hibbert, T. D. (1996). Taking study skills to the classroom: Supplemental Instruction as an integral part of college courses. Unpublished Master's of Arts (M.A.) thesis, University of Texas at El Paso. Available: Interlibrary loan from the University of Texas at El Paso.
This paper studied the impact of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at the University of Texas at El Paso during Fall 1994 and 1995 in three Sociology Statistics classes and three Sociology Methods of Research classes with a total student enrollment of 269 students. These sections were chosen since the same instructor taught the three sections in each subject -- controlling for the possibility of different teaching styles. The three dependent variables studied were final course grade, semester grade point average, and re-enrollment at the university the following academic term. The classes included in this study had D, F or withdrawal rates of 32 to 38 percent before providing the SI program. During Fall 1994 the researcher conducted a mandatory study session connected with each section of the sociology classes. These mandatory sessions occurred during one class period each week. In one course section the researcher conducted a traditional SI session. In the other section of the same course the researcher allowed the enrolled students to guide the session. The researcher served as a discussion facilitator. The results were mixed regarding the improvement of semester grade point averages. In the statistics course the SI group had a higher subsequent semester GPA (2.86 vs. 2.57). In the methods course the results slightly favored the non-SI group (1.98 vs. 1.90). The same pattern emerged regarding final course grades. In the statistics course the SI group had higher academic performance (percent A & B, 41.3% vs. 32.6%; D, F & W, 32.0% vs. 30.4%; mean final grade, 73.66 vs. 72.2). In the methods class the non-SI group had higher achievement (percent A & B, 55.0% vs. 48.9%; D, F, & W, 20.0% vs. 26.5%; mean final grade, 76.4 vs. 73.8). An abbreviated version of the Whimbey Analytical Skills Inventory (8 items rather than 38) and a math assessment test was administered to all students at the beginning and the end of the academic term. No significant differences were found. Analysis of student journals suggested increased confidence and enjoyment of the course content due to the experience of the supplemental study review sessions provided through both the traditional SI and the informal student-led sessions. The researcher postulated several possible reasons for no significant difference between the SI group and the informal student study groups: (1) since the same person facilitated the SI sessions and the informal student study group (non-SI) some SI activities may have been utilized during the non-SI group sessions; (2) the SI facilitator also provided additional tutorial help to the non-SI group throughout the academic term.

Hodges, R. B. (1997). The effect of self-monitoring strategies and verbal prompts on high-risk students' attendance in tutoring and Supplemental Instruction and their academic achievement (Doctoral dissertation, Ed.D., Grambling State University, 1997). Dissertation Abstracts International, 59(02), 0429A
The study investigated the effect of high-risk students' self-monitoring (SM) strategies and instructors' use of verbal prompts on high-risk students' attendance in tutoring and Supplemental Instruction (SI) and on their academic achievement. Subjects consisted of 103 conditionally admitted contract students at Southwest Texas State University during fall 1996. Using an experimental posttest-only control-group design, instructors in four freshman seminar classes implemented different combinations of treatment. In Treatment 1, subjects were required to self-monitor their attendance in tutoring and SI, and they received verbal prompts from their instructors to attend free tutoring and SI. In Treatment 2, subjects were required to self-monitor their attendance in tutoring and SI but were not given verbal prompts. In Treatment 3, subjects received verbal prompts to attend tutoring and SI but were not required to self-monitor their attendance. In the control group, subjects were not required to self-monitor their attendance in tutoring and SI and were not exposed to verbal prompts. A validation analysis of the effectiveness of tutoring and SI compared subjects attending one or more tutoring sessions and one or more SI sessions to those not attending. Using independent t-tests, the results indicated no significant group differences occurred in semester GPA between attendees and nonattendees in tutoring but did find statistically significant group difference in semester GPA for attendees in SI. Three hypotheses examined the relationship between subjects' use of SM strategies and instructors' use of verbal prompts on subjects' attendance in tutoring and SI. Two ANOVAs failed to reject the three null hypotheses which indicated that there was no increased in subjects' attendance in tutoring and SI between groups. SI attendance for this subpopulation of students was low (mean=2.27 with S.D.=3.37) when compared with national SI data studies. The researcher suggested the following reasons for low SI attendance based on student surveys and interviews: SI sessions scheduled at time in conflict with other student commitments; high-risk students have unrealistic positive perceptions regarding their own academic skills and may not seek help; and high-risk students need stronger external influences to change their behavior including the requirement of mandatory SI attendance. The researcher suggests increased attention to the affective domain and its possible impact upon student learning and the use of mandatory attendance in academic enrichment programs such as SI and tutoring.

Hurley, M. “Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI): An Interactive Delivery System that Facilitates Student Learning.” Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Urban Leadership and Policy Studies in Education, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 2000.

Jarvi, S. W. (1998). A quantitative and qualitative examination of Supplemental Instruction and its relationship to student performance (collaborative learning, academic support) (Doctoral dissertation, Ph.D., The University of Connecticut, 1998). Dissertation Abstracts International, 59(05), 1484A
Academic support programs are well entrenched on virtually every college campus. These programs have not always been warmly received, however, and their place on many campuses is a source of constant debate. They have to be evaluated effectively and often to determine if they are achieving their intended goals and contributing to the overall mission of the institution. Supplemental Instruction (SI) is one example of a support program because it utilizes peers to foster a collaborative learning environment and targets high risk classes as opposed to high risk students. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were employed in this study. The sample for the quantitative component included 2,295 cases of a student completing 1 of 12 introductory level Biology or Chemistry courses in which SI was offered at a large New England Research University. From the total sample, 860 students attended at least one SI session. Qualitative techniques were employed to collect data from both participants and non-participants of SI during one semester. Direct regression where the independent variables of Scholastic Aptitude Test scores, cumulative grade point average, semester standing, and level of SI participation. The dependent variable was student performance in the class as measured by average exam scores. Analyses of data found that in 7 of 12 classes involved, level of participation in SI explained a significant additional amount of variation in exam scores with accompanying large effect sizes. Qualitative findings revealed core categories related to why students attend SI: belief that SI attendance helps to raise test scores; SI sessions were fun and made participants feel more comfortable; students liked SI since it gave an opportunity to work in teams with other students; enabled attendees to stay academically competitive; and sometimes SI sessions compensated for poor lectures. The two major reasons for students not participating in SI were that time constraints precluded attendance and the other reason was a belief that SI attendance was unnecessary.

Kastelic, J. (1997). Adjunct study skills: An integrated, student-centered approach to learning in community college. Unpublished Master's of Arts (M.A.) thesis, University of San Francisco.
This research report describes one academic study skills program offered at a community college in northern California. It presents a variety of data to show how this integrated, student-centered, collaborative-based adjunct program affected the immediate and long term academic performance and study behaviors of its multicultural, multilingual participants. Students who enrolled in the target course in political science and concurrently completed its corresponding adjunct course over a three quarter period participated in this study. The adjunct course (Skills 130A/PS) was a variation of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model. Students must attend at least seven weekly sessions and complete four independent study skills labs. SI leaders facilitate the adjunct course which carries academic credit and can generate extra credit points for the linked political science course (Political Science 1). A qualitative and quantitative study was conducted. The students enrolled in linked adjunct course earned higher rates of A & B final course grades, lower rates of D, F & W grades, and increased levels of study skills abilities as compared with students who did not enroll in the adjunct course.

Kenney, P. A. (1989). Effects of Supplemental Instruction (SI) on student performance in a college-level mathematics course (Doctoral dissertation Ph.D., The University of Texas at Austin, 1988). Dissertation Abstracts International, 50(02), 378A. (University Microfilms, No. 8909688).
This doctoral dissertation describes a research study that used Supplemental Instruction (SI) in a first-semester calculus course for business and economics majors at the University of Texas at Austin. The experimental design for this study used Campbell and Stanley's Nonequivalent Control Group model. The study used two lecture classes with the same instructor. Each class was divided into two discussion sections, and of those, one from each received the SI treatment. In the control sections the teaching assistant performed typical duties. In the SI sections the assistant performed the same duties but in addition she provided instruction on the study skills relevant to the course as it progressed and other activities that SI leaders would perform or facilitate. The results showed a statistically significant difference favoring the SI treatment group: the control group mean course grade point average of 2.43 and that for the treatment group of 3.00; the control group mean semester grade point average (GPA) of 2.51 and that for the treatment group GPA of 2.95. A multiple linear regression model was then chosen as a more complete method of analysis. Three of the independent variables had coefficients which were significant at the .05 level -- high school class rank, discussion section attendance, and control/treatment group membership. This helps to answer the question of whether SI was just a form of "double exposure" to the course content. Since SI sessions were qualitatively different than the traditional discussion sections (as evaluated by outside observers using a observation protocol) and that the students who participated in the SI sessions earned higher mean final course grades, it appears that SI sessions were more than double exposure. A multiple regression analysis of semester grade point average found that three of the variables were significant at the .05 level -- the SAT Mathematical score, discussion section attendance, and group membership. Controlling for exposure, it was suggested that these gains were due to the benefits of SI, not to the increased exposure of the group to course material. To investigate any residual effects from the SI program, the students from the initial study were tracked for an additional semester. Results from the follow-up study showed that students who had experienced SI had a pattern of fewer F grades in and withdrawals from the second-semester business calculus course. Of the 26 students who failed or withdrew from the original calculus course, former SI participants were more likely to immediately reenroll in the course (six students) than the non-SI participants (one student). Another study focused on the academic performance of SI and non-SI participants in a succeeding academic term in courses where SI was not offered. Former SI participants earned no F grades or withdrew from the second-semester business calculus course. The former SI participants earned a slightly higher mean final course grade (2.63 vs. 2.48), though it was not a statistically significant difference. The researcher speculates that the absence of SI with the second calculus course may had a bigger impact on former SI participants -- narrowing the positive difference in academic achievement with the control group -- since a support service which they were used to accessing was not available in the next course in the sequence.

Kotze, G. S. (1994). Essentials of a program for Supplemental Instruction as academic support for technikon students in mathematics courses at entry-level. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Education (Department of Diadactics) at the University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein, Republic of South Africa.
This Doctor of Philosophy dissertation is focused on the effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction (SI) with postsecondary students in entry-level mathematics courses at an institution in the Republic of South Africa. The SI model was evaluated regarding its effectiveness with providing the necessary psychological, philosophical, educational, and sociological components that can contribute towards successful mathematics mastery. Through qualitative and quantitative evaluations, the SI model was found to support increased academic achievement and mastery of mathematical concepts.

Lilley, L. L. (1997). Retention of racial-ethnic minority students within Virginia baccalaureate schools of nursing (nursing education) (Doctoral dissertation, Ph.D., George Mason University, 1997). Dissertation Abstracts International, 58(07), 3559B
The purpose of this dissertation research study was to examine the relationship between retention strategies and retention rates of racial-ethnic minority baccalaureate nursing students attending public universities and colleges within the State of Virginia. Tinto's Model of Student Departure was used as the framework for the study. A cross-sectional one-part mailed survey design was used for this study. A descriptive methodology was used to summarize and describe the data. Qualitative comments were also analyzed for themes about retention. Statistically significant findings included: lack of close tracking of retention of racial-ethnic minority students by the schools; no statistical significance between the variable of retention problems and the variables of tutoring for racial-ethnic minority students; and fewer than 37% of the schools had Supplemental Instruction or related programs available at the department or school level, although they may have been offered elsewhere on campus.

Maloney, R. S. (1992). The Supplemental Instruction program as an alternative field experience for secondary education majors. Unpublished undergraduate honors thesis (Bachelor of Science with Honors in Education), University of New Orleans, LA. Available: Interlibrary loan from the University of New Orleans, LA.
The College of Education at the University of New Orleans, LA (UNO) requires all education majors to complete twenty five hours of a Professional Laboratory Experience (PLE), which has traditionally been as a teacher aide in an area high school, prior to the student teaching experience. The goal of the PLE is to provide a varied and enriching teaching experience for prospective student teachers. The primary purpose of this study is to study the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in College Life sections of English 0150 during Fall 1991 to provide an effective alternative field experience for secondary education majors prior to student teaching. Students were divided into two groups: one group served as SI leaders in the English course and the other group were placed in the traditional high school teacher aide position. Surveys were given to the secondary education majors -- those who completed their PLE at the high school and those who served as SI leaders at the college -- prior to and at the completion of their PLE (course name EDCI 3205) to measure their preparedness to perform specific teaching tasks. The results suggest that there is a greater change in preparedness levels for those who participated as SI leaders in the following areas: lesson preparation (write performance objectives, choose appropriate materials, vary methodology, allocate time for content coverage, construct evaluation instruments, and provide feedback of assessment and evaluation results); classroom management (manage time, mange classroom routines, maintain student engagement, manage task related behavior, and monitor and maintain student behavior); and instructional skills (initiate lessons and activities, provide accurate content information, emphasize essential elements of content knowledge, and implement learning activities at an appropriate pace). The researcher suggested that one of the reasons for the significant gains for the SI leaders was that they had more power to select and experiment with activities. The high school teaching aides were limited by the cooperating high school teacher. Based upon analysis of the data, the researcher suggests that SI can serve as an alternative experience for education majors.

McGinty, D. A. (1990). A path analysis of the effects of multiple programs on student persistence: dormitory residence, orientation, tutoring, Supplemental Instruction (Doctoral dissertation Ph.D., The University of Texas at Austin, 1989). Dissertation Abstracts International, 51(02), 368A. (University Microfilms No. 9016936).
The models of Spady and Tinto depict student dropout as the result of an inadequate integration into the social and academic systems of the college. This doctoral dissertation research study hypothesizes that persistence for the traditional freshman at a large university is based on background characteristics (gender, ethnicity, rank in high school, aptitude, and college enrolled in) and variables of the academic environment (tutoring, Supplemental Instruction, student orientation, living in residence hall, and grade point average). The model hypothesizes that the academic environment variables have important direct and indirect effects. These four academic programs are described in the literature as promoting student retention. This dissertation researched the effect each program has on student persistence as well as the effect of participation in multiple programs. Path analysis was selected to explain the interactive process of the variables. Multiple regression analysis was used to investigate the strength and direction of the relationships in the path model. It is postulated that the impact of the SI program may have been diminished due to the low number of SI participants (55 of the 560 students in the overall study) which may have clouded results during data analysis. There were moderately significant differences for residence hall, Supplemental Instruction, and the combined effects of orientation and dorm and GPA. SI participants with lower SAT scores performed at academic levels similar to non-SI participants who had higher SAT scores. Further exploratory analyses indicate that the different retention programs have varying effects on students based on ability and past performance levels. The results suggest that retention programs should be targeted at specific populations based on ability and past performance levels.

McGrath, E. T. (1988). Supplemental Instruction: A study of its efficacy on the Greenville College campus. Unpublished master's thesis, Greenville College, IL.
The purpose of this master's thesis study from Fall 1986 and Spring 1987 was to evaluate the effects of Supplemental Instruction at Greenville College (IL) regarding: 1) mastery of course content (SI participants earned a higher final course grade -- 3.16 vs. 2.66 -- and a lower rate of D, F and withdrawal final course grades than nonparticipants (ratio of 3:4); 2) transference of learning skills from one course to another (former SI participants received a higher cum GPA in succeeding academic terms than nonparticipants, 3.14 vs. 2.66); and 3) higher course and institutional retention rates (97 percent for SI participants vs. 83 percent for nonparticipants).

McManus, S. M. (1992). The relationship between Supplemental Instruction and student achievement in university mathematics courses. Unpublished Master's of Science (M.S.) thesis, North Carolina State University at Raleigh. Available: Interlibrary loan from North Carolina State University at Raleigh.
The relationship between Supplemental Instruction (SI) and student achievement during Fall 1990 at North Carolina State University at Raleigh (NCSU) was the focus of this study. The target population was 198 freshmen and sophomore students enrolled in entry-level mathematics courses at NCSU. During the academic term, 60 students attended one or more times (SI group) while 138 students chose not to attend any SI sessions (non-SI group). Students were enrolled in two sections of Math 241, a second-semester calculus course that was taught by the same professor. The initial section of the paper provides a review of the professional literature concerning SI. The author traces the importance of the following in understanding the unique method of SI: Piaget's constructivism, cooperative learning, student questioning skills, and study strategies. A Pearson Product Moment correlation (r = -.1771) and a Multiple Regression Analysis found no significant relationship between the number of SI sessions attended and final course grade. However, students who attended 5 or more SI sessions steadily increased throughout the academic term while the scores of other SI participants fluctuated. The researcher postulates that this suggests the beneficial effect of frequent SI attendance for improving academic performance. A t-test used found that students attending the SI sessions received statistically significantly higher final course grades than those who did not attend (mean final course grade: 86.44 vs. 77.62; t = 2.95, df = 194, p < .01). Following is a comparison between the SI and non-SI groups for each of the course exams. In each comparison the SI group earned higher mean grades: test 1: 76.41 vs. 71.92; test 2: 83.57 vs. 77.01; test 3: 87.57 vs. 79.06; test 4: 83.24 vs. 70.87; test 5: 86.12 vs. 78.82; final exam: 75.31 vs. 67.33; final course grade: 86.45 vs. 77.62. Each comparison was statistically significant except for test 1.

Merwin, D. D. (1991). A comparative analysis of two tutoring methods assessing student achievement and retention (Doctoral dissertation Ed.D., Montana State University, 1990). Dissertation Abstracts International, 52(02), 438A. (University Microfilms No. 9109700).
The purpose of this doctoral dissertation research study was to compare the effectiveness of two tutoring methods with regard to achievement and retention for high-risk undergraduate students at Northern Montana College (Havre, MT) enrolled in English 150 during the 1986-87 academic school year (eleven courses sections over the fall, winter and spring academic terms). English 150 is a three-credit course considered to be developmental in content since it encompassed the basic skills areas (sentence structure, parts of speech, grammar, usage, punctuation, and paragraph development). The two tutoring methods were group tutoring (i.e., Supplemental Instruction, or SI) and individual tutoring. The treatment was randomly assigned to each of the eleven course sections and attendance was mandatory by the students. The problem was investigated by: (1) examining how the tutoring methods and other independent variables affected student achievement and student retention, and (2) comparing the two tutoring methods in terms of cost effectiveness. Achievement was measured by the pretest-posttest gain score from the Tests of Adult Basic Education (TABE). The TABE test for English measured students' competency in capitalization, punctuation, expression, and spelling. Retention was measured by the ratio percentage of the number of student credit hours earned compared to the number of hours attempted for the first and second years following treatment. The cost effectiveness of both tutoring methods was compared by determining the cost of one grade level of improvement. Some of the major findings were: students in SI tutoring had higher retention rates than students receiving individual tutoring for the first and second years following treatment; the combined results of the two tutoring methods did make a significant difference in student achievement; the SI tutoring method compared to the individual tutoring method was more cost effective ($3.46 average cost for SI program to improve one grade level of one students vs. $16.30 for one-on-one tutoring to do the same); and individual tutoring had a relatively short-term effect. An unexpected finding was that students who participated in SI groups continued to meet at other times outside of class and that the groups were heterogeneous groupings. Interviews with these students revealed that they had met the other students through the SI sessions. It was assumed that students would tend to meet with their own homogeneous affinity groups. The SI students revealed that they enjoyed the social interactions in the groups and felt more comfortable working with other SI participants when they needed additional academic assistance with the English 150 course. The SI program also had an impact upon the SI leaders. Three of the seven SI leaders changed their degrees -- two were business majors and one was a vocational-technical major -- to education so they could become professional teachers. One-on-one tutors reported frustration with the tutoring program when students canceled their scheduled tutoring sessions. Since SI leaders worked with groups, they did not encounter that problem.

Metcalf, K. J. (1996). The impact of the training format on tutors' attitudes, beliefs, values, and practices in college level tutoring (Doctoral dissertation, Ph.D., State University of New York at Buffalo, 1996). Dissertation Abstracts International, 57(09), 3780A
There is a lack of empirical data to support which, of several training formats (models), is the best format for training tutors. The purpose of this present dissertation study was to identify which of four training formats produced a positive chance in tutor's attitudes towards tutoring, the tutoring process, and its administration. Accredited Course (AC), Supplemental Instruction Liaison (SIL) Course, Comprehensive Course (CC), and Short Course (SC).A dual methodology was used. In the quantitative study, data was gathered from student-tutors in 30 postsecondary tutor training programs, using a pre and post-test quasi-experimental research design. The College Student Peer-Tutor Survey (CSPTS) was developed to assess whether length or amount of tutor training influenced a positive change in student-tutors' attitudes toward tutoring. The qualitative component of the overall study sought to capture the insights and perceptions of the tutor coordinators/trainers from the 30 tutor training programs in relation to: (a) understanding the programs' organization and instructional content, (b) refining the typology of formats, and (c) developing recurrent themes. As a result of training and experience tutoring, statistically significant changes in tutor's attitudes towards tutoring were evidenced in all four formats. SIL tutors showed more positive change in relation to the importance of "A tutor being an expert in the subject area he/she is tutoring in." Results from the qualitative component of the study focused attention on three recurrent themes: (a) the need for further refinement of the typology of formats, (b) the need for staff development, and (c) the precariousness of program status.

Peoples, D. M. (1993). Supplemental Instruction: Is it effective? Unpublished Master of Arts (M.A.) thesis, Rowan College of New Jersey: Available: Interlibrary loan from Rowan College of New Jersey.
This Master of Arts Thesis studied the impact of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in 1991-1992 with fifteen 7th and 8th grade junior high school students with a disability enrolled in Overbrook Junior High School of the Lower Camden County Regional High School District Number 1 (NJ). The students were classified either Emotionally Disturbed, Perceptually Impaired or Neurologically Impaired. The students in the study were divided into three groups: those currently receiving SI (CSI) and are mainstreamed in all four of the core academic subject areas; those who previously received SI (PSI) and are mainstreamed in three of the subject areas and only receive resource room instruction; and those who never received SI (NSI) and are mainstreamed in two of the subject areas and only receive resource room instruction. The significance of this study is that SI provides another venue for students with a disability to be educated in the least restrictive environment and be mainstreamed with other students. Departing from the traditional SI model, the following modifications were made to the delivery of the SI program: (1) due to state regulations the SI leader in this study was a certified teacher of disabilities for grades N-12; (2) SI participants were limited to the "at-risk" students with a disability; and (3) due to state regulations the SI groups were limited to no larger than five students. The researcher noted that a common characteristic of SI for traditional college students and the high school students with a disability is that both populations had varying academic ability levels. The CSI students most of the time received higher final course grades than the PSI group, which in turn generally received higher grades than the NSI group. Interviews with parents suggested high satisfaction with the SI program and favored it over the resource room instruction. Students also requested assistance more during the SI sessions than during the resource room instruction. The researcher suggested that the smaller size of the SI sessions in comparison with the resource room instruction was less threatening for students to reveal their needs.

Potts, S. A. K. (1998). Impact of mixed method designs on knowledge gain, credibility, and utility of program evaluation findings (Doctoral dissertation, Ph.D., Arizona State University, 1998). Dissertation Abstracts International, 59(06), 1942A
This dissertation study attempted to understand the relationship between evaluation approach and the perceived knowledge gain, credibility, and utility of findings. Specifically, the researcher investigated whether or not quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method evaluations produced different kinds and amounts of knowledge gain, different levels of credibility, or suggested different types of use. To investigate this question, the researcher selected a group of consumers of evaluations, presented them with three simulated evaluation case summaries, and interviewed them for their reactions. Participants included ten administrators from academic success and student service programs at Arizona State University. The evaluation case summaries were of a study counseling center, a summer transition program, and a Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. Each summary highlighted the evaluation's purposes, research questions, data collection methods, findings, conclusions, and recommendations. Participants ranked the mixed-method summary the highest in knowledge gain because it portrayed the most comprehensive picture of program participants, processes, and outcomes. The mixed-method summary was ranked the highest in credibility because it allowed participants to experience the program through the eyes and voices of the students. Participants also ranked the mixed-method summary the highest in utility since it prepared them for such internal administrative responsibilities such as strategic planning, high stakes decision-making, and programmatic improvement. Even though SI was not the primary focus of this study, the findings illustrate the need for careful evaluation of SI programs. The research suggests that SI program administrators should use the mixed-method evaluation system to provide the most helpful and convincing data for policy makers.

Pryor, S. A. (1990). The relationship of Supplemental Instruction and final grades of students enrolled in high-risk courses (Doctoral dissertation EdD, Western Michigan University, 1989). Dissertation Abstracts International, 50(07), 1963A. (University Microfilms, No. 8923554).
The purpose of this doctoral dissertation research study was to determine if there was a significant relationship between attendance at Supplemental Instruction (SI) and final course grades. Unlike some other studies that included SI leaders who were graduate students, community persons, or faculty members, this study only examined SI sessions that were facilitated by undergraduate students. The three science courses at Western Michigan University studied were Animal Biology, Plant Biology, and Introduction to Physics. Attendance at SI was significantly related to final course grades (4.0 grade point scale: 2.64 for SI participants vs. 2.27 for non-SI participants, p< .002), and students who attended SI earned significantly higher final course grades than students who did not attend SI. Even when final course grades were adjusted for composite ACT score, the SI group maintained the half letter grade positive difference. There was also a significant difference in the grade distribution of students who attended SI and students who did not attend SI. The rate of D, F and course withdrawals much significantly lower for the SI group (25% vs. 39%, p< .05). There was a positive correlation between higher levels of SI attendance and higher mean final course grades. Students who attended three or more SI sessions earned a full letter grade higher than the non-SI group (adjusted mean final course grades: zero SI attendance, 2.27; attended SI once or twice, 2.45; attended three to six SI sessions, 3.07; and attended SI sessions seven or more times, 3.10).

Sevos, S. (1991). The effects of Supplemental Instruction on a developmental mathematics course. Unpublished Master's of Science (M.S.) thesis, Kean College of New Jersey. Available: Interlibrary loan from Kean College of New Jersey.

Smit, D. (1996). A student's attitude towards skills, adjustment and performance, and the role of Supplemental Instruction. Unpublished Bachelor of Arts' Thesis, University of Port Elizabeth, Republic of South Africa. 
This thesis paper examines the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at the University of Port Elizabeth (South Africa). A qualitative research design was employed to study the outcomes of the SI program with students regarding attitudes toward skills, adjustment, and performance. The subject of the study was a first year chemistry student. The researcher noted that since SI is a student-driven activity, some academic skills are emphasized based on SI participant interest.

Stephens, J. E. (1995). A study of the effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction on developmental math students in higher education (Doctoral dissertation EdD, University of North Texas, 1995). Dissertation Abstracts International, 56(05), 1697A. (University Microfilms, No. 9529947).
This quasi-experimental doctoral dissertation research study examined the effects of participation in a Supplemental Instruction (SI) program on student test performance in a second-level developmental mathematics class in a four-year university setting (rural North Central Texas, 6300 FTE) during Spring 1994. The research design followed Campbell and Stanley's Nonequivalent Control group Model (1963) with repeated measures. This research deviated from past research on SI in that it examined effects of the SI program at the end of each of six test blocks rather than at the end of the course only. Test data were analyzed using analysis of variance; final course grades were analyzed using chi-square. Interview notes combined with notes on classroom behavior patterns and SI study session behaviors added to the ethnographic aspect of the study. Results showed that the SI students scored higher on unit tests throughout the semester, and this difference in scores became significant as the semester progressed (Score range: 0 to 100; Exam #1: 67.8 vs. 66.3; Exam #2: 78.97 vs. 74.34; Exam #3: 69.0 vs. 59.03; Exam #4: 84.13 vs. 54.02; Exam #5: 83.03 vs. 68.34; Final Exam: 68.77 vs. 51.35. Exams beginning with #3 were statistically significant (p < .01). The rate of A or B final course grades was higher for the SI group (36.6% vs. 6.7%). The rate of D and F grades (24.1% vs. 52.0%), course withdrawals (11.0% vs. 28.0%), and combined rate of D or F final course grades and withdrawals (35.4% vs. 80.0%) was lower for SI participants. Additional analysis examined the impact of low, medium and high attendance at SI sessions. These categories are defined as attending one-third, two-thirds, or all SI sessions during the examination period. Only in two of the six examination blocks was attendance found to be statistically significant (Exam #3 mean scores of SI participants: low, 62.7; medium, 75.33; high, 83.0. Exam #4: low, 78.33; medium, 88.42; high, 96.0). Overall percentage of SI participation grew throughout the academic term: exam #1, 18.7%; exam #2, 36.2%; exam #3, 46.7%; exam #4, 42.3%; and exam #5, 53.2%. Observations regarding behaviors during the SI sessions included: it took time before students became active and verbal participants; students began to understand error patterns revealed during unit examinations; problem solving skills increased; increased ability to explain thinking process regarding problem-solving; discovery of multiple approaches to problem-solving; the group developed camaraderie; and the emergence of several SI participants as subgroup leaders. Observations regarding behaviors during class lectures by SI participants found that after several weeks they began to ask more questions to the instructor concerning lecture material.





 

Section Two: Books, Chapters, and Monographs

Ainsworth, L., Garnett, D., Phelps, D., Shannon, S., & Ripperger-Suhler, K. (1994). Steps in starting Supplemental Instruction. In D. C. Martin, & D. Arendale (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Increasing achievement and retention (pp. 23-30). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc.
An institution must complete a number of critical steps to effectively implement a new Supplemental Instruction (SI) program: present research-based information that suggests the effectiveness of SI; gaining administrative and faculty support; selecting a SI supervisor with sufficient release time; carefully supervising the SI program throughout the academic term; and using evaluation data for program improvement. The authors based their suggestions from past experience at Texas Tech University.

Arendale, D. (1993). Supplemental Instruction: Improving student performance and reducing attrition. In Educational Programs that Work: The Catalogue of the National Diffusion Network (19th ed., p. 14.4). Longmont, CO: Sopris West, Inc.
This overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program provides a narrative description of SI, minimum requirements for successful implementation of the program, and services that the National Center for SI at the University of Missouri-Kansas City can provide to institutions that wish to implement SI.

Arendale, D. (1994). Understanding the Supplemental Instruction model. In D. C. Martin, & D. Arendale (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Increasing achievement and retention (pp. 11-21). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. This chapter provides a basic overview of the Supplemental Instruction model: common factors in student attrition; development of the SI program in 1973; key SI program personnel; administration and funding of SI programs; connection of the SI program with other campus programs.

Arendale, D. (1995). Self-assessment for adjunct instructional programs. In S. Clark-Thayer (Ed.), NADE Self-Evaluation Guides: Models for assessing learning assistance/developmental education programs (pp. 49-87). Clearwater, FL: H&H Publishing Company.
This chapter provides a framework for evaluating a campus Supplemental Instruction (SI) program regarding a variety of issues: mission, goals, and objectives; program activities; program administration; human resources; facilities; value system; awareness of individual differences; and program evaluation. Adjunct instructional programs (AIPs) are defined as those forms of group collaborative learning assistance that accompany a specific targeted course to serve as a supplement for that course. These AIP activities occur outside of class.

Arendale, D. (1998). Increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of learning for first year college students through Supplemental Instruction. P. L. Dwinell, & J. L. Higbee (Eds.), The role of developmental education in preparing successful college students (pp. 185-197). Columbia, SC: The National Association for Developmental Education and the National Center for the Study of the Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition. Supplemental Instruction (SI) can be a powerful force for increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of learning for students during the first year of college. With the paradigm shift from a focus on teaching to improvement of student learning, institutions are looking for a systematic approach to changing the campus learning culture. This chapter describes how SI addresses these needs and also provides a review of research in the U.S. and other countries regarding the impact of SI with improving student academic performance.

Arendale, D. (2008). Selected annotated bibliography for Supplemental Instruction. In M. E. Stone & G. Jacobs (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses (No. 7, 3rd ed., pp. 97-104) Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transition.

Ashwin, P. W. H. (1994). The Supplemental Instruction leader experience: Why SI is not teaching, a student's perspective. In C. Rust, & J. Wallace (Eds.), Helping students to learn from each other: Supplemental Instruction (pp. 87-90). Birmingham, England: Staff and Educational Development Association.
This chapter provides both a perspective as both a leader and supervisor in the Supplemental Instruction program at Kingston University and Newham College of Further Education in the United Kingdom. SI sessions is not about teaching for a number of reasons: new information is not given in addition to that provided by the professor; SI participants create the agenda for the SI sessions; no formal assessment is taken; equal focus is placed on the process of learning of material as well as the material itself; and students do not perceive themselves in the same type of power relationship with the SI leader as they feel with the course professor. SI leaders focus on involving all students at the sessions and having them process the course material.

Barlow, J., & Gardiner, P. (1994). Introducing Supplemental Instruction in engineering courses. In C. Rust, & J. Wallace (Eds.), Helping students to learn from each other: Supplemental Instruction (pp. 17-24). Birmingham, England: Staff and Educational Development Association.  The authors describe the implementation of Supplemental Instruction in civil, mechanical, and electrical engineering courses at Brighton University in the United Kingdom. SI was introduced in response to increasing pressures in higher education with reduced resources, much wider access, and changes in academic organizations. Evaluation reports suggest improvement by both the SI participants as well as the SI leaders.

Bidgood, P. (1994). The success of Supplemental Instruction: Statistical evidence. In C. Rust, & J. Wallace (Eds.), Helping students to learn from each other: Supplemental Instruction (pp. 71-79). Birmingham, England: Staff and Educational Development Association.  Research studies from Kingston University (United Kingdom) suggest that Supplemental Instruction has been helpful in a wide range of courses. Several studies suggested that higher levels of SI attendance are correlated with higher final course grades: Computer Systems, 1990-91: 68.2 percentile vs. 61.3 percentile for non-SI and 1991-92: 61.9 vs. 61.0; Information Systems, 1990-91: 67.5 vs. 59.2 and 1991-92: 59.4 vs. 54.1; Software Engineering, 1990-91 52.9 vs. 50.4 and 1991-92: 48.6 vs. 42.9; Mathematics, 1990-91: 61.6 vs. 56.7 and 1991-92: 58.5 vs. 53.5; and Average Mark for All Courses, 1990-91: 62.7 vs. 56.9 and 1991-92: 57.0 vs. 52.8. Additional studies examined final course grades for comparable entry qualifications.

Bryngfors, L., & Bruzell-Nilsson, M. (1997). Supplemental Instruction: An experimental project with the method of Supplemental Instruction. Lund, Sweden: The Lund Institute of Technology and The Faculty of Science. Available: Lund University, Center for Supplemental Instruction, Kansli LTH, Box 118, 221 00 Lund, Sweden.
This report provides an overview of the expansion of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program into Sweden. Research studies in 1996 from Lund University (Lund, Sweden) suggest that SI participation contributes to higher percent of students passing the final examination for the course (46 percent vs. 39 percent), and a higher rate of reenrollment (15 percentage points higher). The mean average of students participating in SI was 46 percent. Interviews with SI participants, SI leaders and the course professors who had SI attached to their class reported positive comments concerning the impact of the SI program. SI leader comments could be placed into three categories: contact with and the opportunity to assist in the learning process of the new students; deeper knowledge of the subject; and deeper knowledge of the learning process and leadership experiences. Faculty members mentioned the following reasons for supporting the SI program: received feedback from students concerning problems that students encountered but did not disclose to the course instructor; SI sessions provided another forum for students to engage in deeper understanding and problem solving; students appeared more ready to participate in class oral examinations due to practice of similar activities in SI sessions; students were more skilled in participating in collaborative learning activities required by the course professor; and students appeared to have higher morale since they established working relationships with other students who could support their academic work. The authors for this report also serve as the Certified Trainers for SI in Sweden and surrounding countries.

Bryngfors, L., & Bruzell-Nilsson, M. (1997). Supplemental Instruction: An experimental project with the method of Supplemental Instruction. In R. B. Ludeman, & S. Hubler (Eds.), Quality student services around the world: Bridging student needs and student success (pp. 221-246). Washington, D.C.: National Association of Student Personnel Administrators.
This report provides an overview of the expansion of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program into Sweden. Research studies in 1996 from Lund University (Lund, Sweden) suggest that SI participation contributes to higher percent of students passing the final examination for the course (46 percent vs. 39 percent), and a higher rate of reenrollment (15 percentage points higher). The mean average of students participating in SI was 46 percent. Interviews with SI participants, SI leaders and the course professors who had SI attached to their class reported positive comments concerning the impact of the SI program. SI leader comments could be placed into three categories: contact with and the opportunity to assist in the learning process of the new students; deeper knowledge of the subject; and deeper knowledge of the learning process and leadership experiences. Faculty members mentioned the following reasons for supporting the SI program: received feedback from students concerning problems that students encountered but did not disclose to the course instructor; SI sessions provided another forum for students to engage in deeper understanding and problem solving; students appeared more ready to participate in class oral examinations due to practice of similar activities in SI sessions; students were more skilled in participating in collaborative learning activities required by the course professor; and students appeared to have higher morale since they established working relationships with other students who could support their academic work. The authors for this report also serve as the Certified Trainers for SI in Sweden and surrounding countries.

Burmeister, S. L. (1994). The challenge of Supplemental Instruction: Improving student grades and retention in high risk courses. In M. Maxwell (Ed.), From access to success: A book of readings on college developmental education and learning assistance programs (pp. 209-214). Clearwater, FL: H&H Publishing Company.
This chapter provides a general overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program, its history and components. Review of significant research studies of the SI model is included (e.g., course grade and reenrollment by entry-test score, graduation rates). A new study suggests that SI attendance was correlated with higher final course grades in three types of mathematics courses: College Algebra (2.21 vs. 1.98), Calculus (2.28 vs. 1.83), and Statistics (2.49 vs. 2.32). The study included data from 45 institutions with a total of 11,252 students enrolled in 177 classes. SI participants earned mean final course grades that were higher than non-participants in all three categories of mathematics courses. Suggestions are provided for improving the effectiveness of campus SI programs.

Burmeister, S. L., Carter, J. M., Hockenberger, L. R., Kenney, P. A., McLaren, A., & Nice, D. L. (1994). Supplemental Instruction sessions in College Algebra and Calculus. In D. C. Martin, & D. Arendale (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Increasing achievement and retention (pp. 53-62). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc.
Based on their observations of math Supplemental Instruction sessions, the authors review several active learning strategies that have been effective for students of the discipline. Critical activities for SI participants include: active involvement by all SI session participants; test their approaches to problems; precise use of math vocabulary; attention to precision; practice solving problems under time constraints; vocalize their thinking process regarding problem solving to each other; and set part of the agenda of SI sessions. SI leaders need strong support from the SI supervisor for such activities to characterize SI sessions.

Burmeister, S. L., Kenney, P. A., & Nice, D. L. (1996). Analysis of effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction sessions for college algebra, calculus, and statistics. In J. J. Kaput, A. H. Schoenfeld, & E. Dubinsky (Eds.), Research in Collegiate Mathematics Education II (pp. 145-154). Providence, RI: American Mathematical Association and Mathematical Association of America.
After an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model, this article focuses on a research study concerning the effectiveness of SI for 11,252 students enrolled in 177 courses in college algebra, calculus and statistics from 45 different institutions. In comparison with non-SI participants, SI participants earned higher mean final course grades and experienced lower rates of withdrawals: algebra (2.21 vs. 1.98); calculus (2.28 vs. 1.83); and statistics (2.49 vs. 2.32).

Davies, J., & Johnston, S. (1994). The institutional implementation of Supplemental Instruction. In C. Rust, & J. Wallace (Eds.), Helping students to learn from each other: Supplemental Instruction (pp. 55-63). Birmingham, England: Staff and Educational Development Association.  This chapter describes the implementation of Supplemental Instruction at the University of Plymouth in the United Kingdom. Proponents of the SI program were careful to generate wide support rather than having the program implemented solely by the top institutional leaders. The "SI Working Group" was formed to carefully explore key questions before a final decision was made regarding SI implementation. Liaison relationships were established with the faculty staff, students, and the Dean. While there were challenges during the pilot implementation of SI, the program continues to develop.

Donelan, M. (1994). Introducing Supplemental Instruction in mathematics, law, architecture, geography, and statistics. In C. Rust, & J. Wallace (Eds.), Helping students to learn from each other: Supplemental Instruction (pp. 41-50). Birmingham, England: Staff and Educational Development Association.
This chapter describes the introduction of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at University College London (UCL) in the United Kingdom. Goals for the SI program was to improve both students' personal skills alongside their academic abilities. With would provide a vehicle for improving their personal transferable, as well as cognitive, skills while gaining an experiential understanding of groupwork. SI leaders are generally not paid as SI mirrors a variety of other unpaid student facilitation programs elsewhere at UCL. SI was implemented in mathematics, law, architecture, geography, and statistics. Positive improvements were reported for both SI participants and the SI leaders.

Gardiner, P., Corbett, B., & Palmer, P. (1994). Increasing student participation in the education of civil engineers. In J. Wallace (Ed.), Kingston University HEFCE Supplemental Instruction Project: 1993-94 (pp. 237-241). London, England: Kingston University.  Through use of Supplemental Instruction in the civil engineering courses at the University of Brighton (East Sussex, United Kingdom), improvement occurred in: student learning, self-motivation, and team work skills.

Gravina, M., & Adams, B. (1991). Supplemental Instruction: Integration of approaches to help high-risk students. In Youth at-risk: A resource guide (pp. 67-74). Lancaster, PA: Technonic Publishing Company, Inc.
The book chapter describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) to assist students who have been predicted to be of academic risk at the institution.

Hall, P. T. (1993). Use of Supplemental Instruction at the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law. In D. C. Martin, & D. Arendale (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses 2nd ed., (pp. 38-39). Columbia, SC: National Resource Center for The Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service, No. ED 354 839)  The author describes the use of Supplemental Instruction with first-year "special-admit" law students at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. SI sessions were offered in Introduction to Law, Contracts I, Property I, and Criminal Law. While special admit students were directed to participate in the SI sessions, the program was open to all students enrolled in the four courses. Research suggests that the SI program assisted students to earn higher grades. Reenrollment rates for the special admit students was higher than before the introduction of the SI program.

Hamilton, S., Blakeley, R., Critchley, C., Playford, J., Kelly, B. A., McNamara, E., & Robertson, R. (1994). Supplemental Instruction at the University of Queensland: A pilot program. Brisbane, Queensland, Australia: University of Queensland.
The project at the University of Queensland (Australia) investigated the effectiveness of incorporating Supplemental Instruction (SI) with two large first-level biological science subjects (Introductory Biochemistry and Plant Biology). Research studies suggest that the SI program contributed to higher final course grades for SI participants (63.2 percentile vs. 52.7 percentile). The following factors were cited as important for program success: financial commitment by the academic department; availability of an experienced SI coordinator; selection and training of appropriate SI leaders; and full support of the program and the leaders by academic staff associated with the subject.

Healy, C. E. (1994). Supplemental Instruction: A model for supporting student learning. In J. Wallace (Eds.), Kingston University HEFCE Supplemental Instruction Project: 1993-94 (pp. 231-236). London, England: Kingston University.  The study investigates the effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction at the Glasgow Caledonian University. Preliminary results indicate: a) improved performance in the students' annual examinations (e.g., Electrical Engineering Principles: 61 percentile vs. 46 percentile for non-SI participants); b) reduction in students' drop-out rates; c) enhanced communication and other transferable skills and d) deeper understanding of engineering principles.

Healy, C. E. (1994). Supplemental Instruction: A model for supporting student learning. In H. C. Foot, C. J. Howe, A. Anderson, A. K. Tolmie, & D. A. Warden (Eds.), Group and interactive learning . Southampton, England: Computational Mechanics Publications.
The author reported improved performance in annual examination results of Supplemental Instruction (SI) students as well as reductions in dropout rates, coupled with enhanced communication and other transferable skills and a deeper understanding of the principles of engineering at the British higher education institution.

Healy, C. E. (1994). Introducing Supplemental Instruction in engineering. In C. Rust, & J. Wallace (Eds.), Helping students to learn from each other: Supplemental Instruction (pp. 25-30). Birmingham, England: Staff and Educational Development Association.  This article describes the implementation of Supplemental Instruction in engineering courses at Glasgow Caledonia University in Scotland. The University is seeking to initiate cultural change through partnership events involving students, staff and employees. Research studies suggested improvements by both the SI participants (64.8 percentile vs. 54.4 percentile for non-SI participants) and the SI leaders. Some SI leaders reported that they had now considered pursuing a teaching career based on the positive experience with the SI program.

Hill, S., Gay, B., & Topping, K. J. (1998). Peer-assisted learning beyond school. In K. Topping, & S. Ehly (Eds.), Peer-assisted learning (pp. 291-311). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. This book chapter provides a wide overview of peer-assisted learning (PAL) programs. The first part deals with cross-age tutoring programs. This most often involve college students working with young people. It is common for student tutors to report growth in improved communication skills, self-confidence, cognitive gains. The studies have had mixed results concerning cognitive gains by the tutees. More common improvements are reported with the social and affective domains. The authors report substantial and persuasive evidence of impact on dropout rates, course grades, and graduation outcomes.

Hurley, M., Jacobs, G., & Gilbert, M. (2006). The basic SI model. In M. E. Stone & G. Jacobs (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: New visions for empowering student learning (pp. 11-22). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. This general overview of the SI model looks at the SI philosophy, essential program components, program structures, key roles, outcomes, and evaluation. The chapter also reviews what we have learned about the importance of planning SI sessions, providing ongoing training for leaders, conducting regular SI program assessments, and implementing effective and essential learning strategies.

Hurley, M., Patterson, K. L., & Wilcox, F. K. (2006). Video-based Supplemental Instruction: Serving underprepared students. In M. E. Stone & G. Jacobs (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: New visions for empowering student learning (pp. 43-54). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. This chapter discusses Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI), a variation of the SI model that presents options for students who, barring a serious intervention, will not be successful in college.

Hurley, M., & Gilbert, M. (2008). Basic Supplemental Instruction model. In M. E. Stone & G. Jacobs (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses (No. 7, 3rd ed., pp. 1-9) Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transition. 

Hurley, M., & Gilbert, M. (2008). Research on the effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction. In M. E. Stone & G. Jacobs (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses (No. 7, 3rd ed., pp. 11-19) Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transition.

Hurley, M., Patterson, K., Painter, S., & Carnicom, J. (2008). Video-based Supplemental Instruction. In M. E. Stone & G. Jacobs (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses (No. 7, 3rd ed., pp. 67-79) Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transition.

Ilsley, G. (1994). Introducing college-wide Supplemental Instruction. In C. Rust, & J. Wallace (Eds.), Helping students to learn from each other: Supplemental Instruction (pp. 65-70). Birmingham, England: Staff and Educational Development Association.  Supplemental Instruction is being used at Nene College (Northampton, United Kingdom). SI was used in five courses drawn from engineering, building studies, human biological studies and information systems. Research studies suggest improvement with SI participants.

Jacobs, G., Stone, M. E., & Stout, M. L. (2006). The new vision for SI: Where are we heading? In M. E. Stone & G. Jacobs (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: New visions for empowering student learning (pp. 95-100). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Now firmly established as a proven retention program, SI can move beyond the university and assist communication and education anywhere: in industry, in cyberspace, or in the villages of the most remote corners of the world.

Jacobs, G., Stout, M. L., & Stone, M. E. (2008). Supplemental Instruction: International adaptations and future directions. In M. E. Stone & G. Jacobs (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses (No. 7, 3rd ed., pp. 81-90) Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transition.

Jacobs, G., Hurley, M., & Unite, C. (2008). How learning theory creates a foundation for SI leader training. In S. Rogan, P. Dawson, & S. Draper (Eds.), The Australasian Journal of Peer Learning (pp. 6-12).

Kaye, P. (1994). Introducing Supplemental Instruction in law. In C. Rust, & J. Wallace (Eds.), Helping students to learn from each other: Supplemental Instruction (pp. 51-54). Birmingham, England: Staff and Educational Development Association.  Supplemental Instruction was introduced at the University of Central Lancashire (United Kingdom) in the law program. While the targeted courses did not have high rates of low grades or withdrawal, there were several other reasons for their selection: enhancement of students' competencies and skills; leadership development; appreciation for learning outside of the formal classroom environment; and increased understanding of substantive legal issues.

Kenney, P. A., & Kallison, J. M. (1994). Research studies of the effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction in mathematics. In D. C. Martin, & D. Arendale (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Increasing achievement and retention (pp. 75-82). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc.
Given the emphasis on the need to succeed in college-level mathematics courses, these authors take a careful look at the effects of Supplemental Instruction participation on student performance. In addition to reviewing other research studies, this chapter focuses on the use of SI in Fall 1989 at the University of Texas at Austin in Calculus for Business Students and Calculus for Engineering and Natural Science Students. This paper describes a research study that used Supplemental Instruction (SI) in a first-semester calculus course for business and economics majors at the University of Texas at Austin. The experimental design for this study used Campbell and Stanley's Nonequivalent Control Group model. The study used two lecture classes with the same instructor. Each class was divided into two discussion sections, and of those, one from each received the SI treatment. In the control sections the teaching assistant performed typical duties. In the SI sections the assistant performed the same duties but in addition she provided instruction on the study skills relevant to the course as it progressed and other activities that SI leaders would perform or facilitate. The results showed a statistically significant difference favoring the SI treatment group: the control group mean course grade point average of 2.43 and that for the treatment group of 3.00; the control group mean semester grade point average (GPA) of 2.51 and that for the treatment group GPA of 2.95. A multiple linear regression model was then chosen as a more complete method of analysis. Three of the independent variables had coefficients which were significant at the .05 level -- high school class rank, discussion section attendance, and control/treatment group membership. This helps to answer the question of whether SI was just a form of "double exposure" to the course content. Since SI sessions were qualitatively different than the traditional discussion sections (as evaluated by outside observers using a observation protocol) and that the students who participated in the SI sessions earned higher mean final course grades, it appears that SI sessions were more than double exposure. A multiple regression analysis of semester grade point average found that three of the variables were significant at the .05 level -- the SAT Mathematical score, discussion section attendance, and group membership. Additional studies were conducted concerning SI. The first study compared the performance of students in Business Calculus. While SI was beneficial to all SI participants (2.39 vs. 1.96 for non-SI participants), it was especially helpful for lower-ability students. The second study focused on an Engineering Calculus course. While the difference was closer for the two groups (2.01 vs. 1.91 for non-SI participants), SI provided disproportionate help to the lower-ability students as measured by SAT quantitative scores.

King, P. (1994). Supervision of Supplemental Instruction leaders: A practical guide. In C. Rust, & J. Wallace (Eds.), Helping students to learn from each other: Supplemental Instruction (pp. 81-84). Birmingham, England: Staff and Educational Development Association.  This chapter describes the Supplemental Instruction supervision system at Kingston University in the United Kingdom. Common issues mentioned by SI leaders included: SI session difficulties; SI session leadership skills; strategies to build SI attendance; and SI leader morale.

King, P. (1994). Supplemental Instruction as a staff development model. In C. Rust, & J. Wallace (Eds.), Helping students to learn from each other: Supplemental Instruction (pp. 37-39). Birmingham, England: Staff and Educational Development Association.  This article describes the partnership between the faculty development unit at Kingston University (United Kingdom) and a member of the instructional faculty (professional full-time tutor who also delivered lectures to the students) as they used Supplemental Instruction for student enrichment and staff development. Several courses were targeted in the School of Surveying: Quantity Surveying and Urban Estate Management and European Estate Management studies. The tutor adopted several SI session activities to use during times that were traditionally conducted in a tutorial format. Behavioral changes in students included: students took initiative in sessions for selecting and discussing topics; students worked with each other to identify additional information; students asked more challenging questions of the tutor in class; and students looked to each other for support when challenged with academic matters.

Koch, E. (1997). Lecturing between hope and despair: Lecturers' perceptions of academic development needs of students and lecturers at the University of Port Elizabeth. Port Elizabeth, Republic of South Africa: University of Port Elizabeth, Centre for Academic and Organizational Development. This report assessed the perceptions of lecturers of the success of academic development at the University of Port Elizabeth in the Republic of South Africa. The problem which emerged from the discussions was the growing number of underprepared and unprepared students who desire to attend tertiary education. Supplemental Instruction (SI) is regarded as a good program, but lecturers do not think that it reaches the targeted group of student effectively and deals adequately with the underlying problems. Since SI is voluntary, not all students who should come do so. Additionally, lecturers believe an increase in the structure of SI sessions may raise academic performance of the underprepared students who they believe need this. Additional solutions offered by the lecturers include: extended curriculum to provide more time-on-task; alternative learning methods by inclusion inside the class the use of collaborative learning, computerized self-paced instruction, and other methods.

Lipsky, S. A. (2006). A credit-bearing course for SI training leaders. In M. E. Stone & G. Jacobs (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: New visions for empowering student learning (pp. 33-42). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.  This chapter describes key components in the design of a training course for SI leaders. It looks at course topics and accompanying theoretical frameworks, and explains how content is delivered.

 Lockie, N. M., & Van Lanen, R. J. (1994). Supplemental Instruction for college chemistry courses. In D. C. Martin, & D. Arendale (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Increasing achievement and retention (pp. 63-74). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc.  Strategies for maximizing the effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction in college chemistry courses are presented. The authors share lessons from use of SI in Principles of Inorganic Chemistry, Principles of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, General Chemistry 1, and Organic Chemistry I and II at Saint Xavier University (Chicago, IL). Some of the SI session strategies include: problem-solving strategies; review of basic chemistry content; accurate use of chemical language; collaborative learning activities that promote active learning by all SI session participants; quizzes to provide comprehension checkpoints; and sharing study strategies with each other.

Marcus, D. (1996). Supplemental Instruction with mentoring support at Anne Arundel Community College. In R. Shoenberg (Ed.), Lessons learned from Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education Projects III . Washington, D.C.: Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education, U.S. Department of Education.
This chapter describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at Anne Arundel Community College (Arnold, MD) for faculty development purposes in addition to increasing academic achievement of participating students. SI leaders were paired with faculty mentors who participated in the initial training training for SI leaders. For the first four weeks of the term the faculty mentor participated as learners by attending class lectures and SI sessions whose student SI leaders they supervise and by keeping a journal of their experiences. Mentors were placed in courses outside their discipline so that they would focus on the learning process rather than being tempted to critique the instructional content of the course professor. Mentors reported that they increased their own teaching skills and their view of the learning process.

Marshall, S. (1994). Faculty development through Supplemental Instruction. In D. C. Martin, & D. Arendale (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Increasing achievement and retention (pp. 31-40). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc. Involvement of faculty members with the Supplemental Instruction program can lead to personal and professional renewal for the faculty participants. The author describes the impact of SI with faculty members at Salem State College. Faculty members received an indirect faculty development experience through the following activities: attending training trainings initially designed for the SI leaders; frequent meetings with the SI leader assigned to their class; and participating in monthly seminars that involved SI leaders in discussing learning and teaching skills (group facilitation skills, critiques of teaching presentations, motivation activities, dealing racism and sexism, reviewing SI data studies). Faculty members who participated in this faculty development project reported numerous positive changes in their attitudes and classroom behaviors.

Martin, D. C. (1980). Learning centers in professional schools. In K. V. Lauridsen (Ed.), Examining the scope of learning centers (pp. 69-79). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc.
This chapter describes the role of academic assistance for students in professional schools. The use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) for medical students is described. Several research studies suggest that SI contributes to higher academic achievement and the rate of D, F and course withdrawals have been reduced by 20 percent. Fifty to seventy percent of the medical students enrolled in a given course participate in the service. Data suggests that there is a transfer effect of SI, students who take advantage of SI maintain their GPA lead over nonparticipating students during the following academic term in the second course in the same sequence.

Martin, D. C., & Arendale, D. (1993). Foundation and theoretical framework for Supplemental Instruction. In D. C. Martin, & D. Arendale (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses 2nd ed., (pp. 41-50). Columbia, SC: National Resource Center for The Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service, No. ED 354 839)  This chapter provides an overview of SI's educational pedagogy. Piaget and Vygotsky's writings on constructivism serve as a major basis for describing how students "construct" their own knowledge. This requirement for students to actively create their own knowledge drives many SI session strategies. Tinto's theories on student departure based on students' need for academic and social integration also guide the implementation of the SI program. Additional theorists include Keimig (Hierarchy of Learning Improvement Programs), Weinstein (metacognition), and a variety of researchers concerning collaborative learning.

Martin, D. C., & Arendale, D. (1993). Review of research on Supplemental Instruction. In D. C. Martin, & D. Arendale (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses 2nd ed., (pp. 19-26). Columbia, SC: National Resource Center for The Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service, No. ED 354 839)
This chapter compares a national research study concerning the effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction with studies from the University of Missouri-Kansas City. The National Center for SI collects SI data from a diverse sample of higher education institutions from across the U.S. The national study included data from 49 institutions that had offered SI in 1,477 courses of diverse curriculum areas. The findings suggest that SI participants in comparison with non-SI participants earn higher final course grades (2.46 vs. 2.12), earn a higher percent of A and B final course grades, and receive a lower percent of D, F and withdrawal final course grades (23% vs. 38%). Data collected from 1980 to 1992 in 217 courses with an enrollment of 9,365 students at UMKC confirms the national studies. Additional studies conducted at UMKC suggested higher academic achievement for SI participants with reenrollment (90.0% vs. 81.5% ) and graduation rates (30.6% vs. 18.2%). Several studies from UMKC studied the potential impact of student motivation levels, ethnicity, and previous levels of academic preparation. These were not found to have a statistically significant impact upon the research studies.

Martin, D. C., & Arendale, D. (Eds.) (1993). Supplemental Instruction: Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses (2nd ed.). Columbia, SC: The University of South Carolina and the National Resource Center for the Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service, No. ED 354 839)
This monograph describes Supplemental Instruction (SI), a study assistance program designed to improve the academic success of college freshmen based on the idea that if students are not being successful in courses then perhaps they will withdraw from the institution. The first chapter reviews the SI model. Chapter two explains in detail how SI works in the freshman year. Chapter three offers a review of the research on SI. Chapter 4 examines why educators and students choose SI. Chapter five shows how SI has been adapted to an urban high school, to English composition classes, and to a law school at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. The last chapter reviews the foundation and theoretical framework of SI. An appendix lists institutions currently using SI. (Contains 60 references.) Available from ERIC Document Reproduction Service, No. ED 354 839.

Martin, D. C., & Arendale, D. (1993). Supplemental Instruction in the first college year. In D. C. Martin, & D. Arendale (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses 2nd ed., (pp. 11-18). Columbia, SC: National Resource Center for The Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service, No. ED 354 839) This chapter describes how the Supplemental Instruction program can help meet some of the unique needs presented to students during their first year of college: integrating learning/study strategies within regular content courses; and supporting students enrolled in historically-difficult first-year courses; assisting student subpopulations make a successful transition into college (academically talented, remedial/developmental, field-dependent). Like other successful programs for students in the first-year, central objectives of the SI program are to: develop a felt sense of community; involvement of students in the life of the institution; and providing an environment to support academic and social integration.

Martin, D. C., & Arendale, D. (1993). Understanding the Supplemental Instruction model. In D. C. Martin, & D. Arendale (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses 2nd ed., (pp. 3-10). Columbia, SC: The National Resource Center for The Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service, No. ED 354 839) Theoretical and philosophical underpinnings for the Supplemental Instruction model is included in this overview. Some of the major issues are reviewed: common factors in student attrition; focus on "high-risk courses" rather than "high-risk students;" proactive assistance before problems occur; key SI features; essential partners for SI success; creating awareness and generating support for SI on campus; and movement from a reactive to a proactive mode of student academic assistance.

Martin, D. C., & Arendale, D. (Eds.). (1994). Supplemental Instruction: Increasing achievement and retention (New Directions for Teaching and Learning No. 60). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
This monograph features nine chapters concerning: overview and foundation of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program; use of SI for faculty development; SI in the content areas (humanities, mathematics, chemistry); research studies concerning SI; and the newest innovation of SI called Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI).

Martin, D. C., & Arendale, D. (1998). Supplemental Instruction and Video-based Supplemental Instruction. In American Association for Higher Education, American College Personnel Association, and National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (Eds.), Powerful partnerships: A shared responsibility for learning (pp. 6-7). Washington, D.C.: Editors.
This report describes the different ways that institutions build campus partnerships to deepen student learning both inside and outside the classroom. AAHE, ACPA, and NASPA formed a Joint Taskforce on Student Learning to identify successful models that have implications for pedagogy, curricula, learning environments, and assessment. Both the Supplemental Instruction and Video-based SI programs were highlighted as being a model for the first principle of learning and collaborative action: Learning is fundamentally about making and maintaining connections: biologically through neural networks; mentally among concepts, ideas, and meanings; and experientially through interaction between the mind and the environment, self and other, generality and context, deliberation and action.

Martin, D. C., Arendale, D., & Blanc, R. A. (in press). Mainstreaming of developmental education: Supplemental Instruction and Video-based Supplemental Instruction. In H. Levin (Ed.), Alternatives to developmental education . San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.  This book chapter was originally delivered as a paper at a special conference in January 1998 on "Alternatives to Developmental Education" that was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education funded National Center for Lifelong Learning based at Stanford University (CA). The conference was convened to deal with the growing concern by some states regarding traditional developmental education credit courses. The conference was designed to identify several alternative ways of accomplishing the same purposes as developmental courses (e.g., linked courses, critical thinking courses, SI, VSI). This chapter first provides an overview of SI and VSI. Then it concludes with the pedagogical basis for both. In developmental education, research scholars embrace the reductionist approach by seeking first to identify the separate and distinct skills required for academic success, then to measure the degree to which these are present or absent in the individual, and finally to isolate and teach those skills that are in deficit. Practitioners assume that mastery of a series of independent skills lead to academic competency. SI and VSI break with this view and provide a holistic approach to education. Given sufficient efficiency on task, effective guidance, and the time and opportunity to do so, any serious student can learn.

Martin, D. C., Arendale, D., & Widmar, G. E. (1998). Creating communities for learning. In L. Hardge (Ed.), Bridges to student success: Exemplary programs 1998 (pp. 27-33). Washington, D.C.: National Association for Student Personnel Administrators.
This monograph chapter provides a basic overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model. In addition to the basic overview, the authors describe how SI provides a pluralistic environment where students can learn to value the unique perceptions of others who may view the world differently than themselves. SI provides a structured environment for students to participate in learning communities outside the supervision of the class professor.

Martin, D. C., & Blanc, R. A. (1994). Supplemental Instruction: An organic model in transition, the views of SI's initiator. In C. Rust, & J. Wallace (Eds.), Helping students to learn from each other: Supplemental Instruction (pp. 91-94). Birmingham, England: Staff and Educational Development Association.
This chapter describes the history and development of Supplemental Instruction in the United States by the program's creator. The essential elements of successful SI programs are described. In addition, the chapter reviews the adaption of the SI model for the British higher education system through the work of Jenni Wallace of Kingston University, London.

Martin, D. C., & Blanc, R. A. (1994). Video-Based Supplemental Instruction: A pathway to mastery and persistence. In D. C. Martin, & D. Arendale (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Increasing achievement and retention (pp. 83-92). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc.  The Video-Based Supplemental Instruction (VSI) delivery system using Supplemental Instruction that is described here combines developmental studies with core curriculum courses, offering an alternative to remedial/developmental instruction. Students that are least prepared at the institution need a more powerful academic support service. The difference between the VSI approach and those traditionally used in postsecondary education lies in the centrality of students to the process as opposed to the centrality of the material to be learned: students conduct the preview; students determine the pace of the lecture; students assure their own mastery as the lecture progresses; students select the key points for immediate review; and students identify misconceptions and modify and adapt their conceptions to achieve, eventually, more complete understanding. VSI was designed to allow such students to both earn credit for core curriculum courses while they develop the requisite learning strategies needed for academic success. This provides an alternative way to provide developmental education.

Martin, D. C., Blanc, R. A., & Arendale, D. (1996). Supplemental Instruction: Supporting the classroom experience. In J. N. Hankin (Ed.), The Community College: Opportunity and Access for America's First-Year Students (pp. 123-133). Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina: The National Resource Center for The Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 393 486).  This chapter reviews the impact of the Supplemental Instruction program with fifty-nine two-year colleges across the U.S. The research study contained reports from 480 classes that enrolled 23,979 students. The data suggests that SI participation was correlated with higher academic achievement: higher mean final course grades (2.30 vs. 1.63); higher percentage of A or B final course grades (50.6% vs. 32.9%); and lower rates of D, F and withdrawals (25.9% vs. 46.3%). Similar findings occurred when the data was separated by broad academic disciplines: business, health science, mathematics, natural science, social science/humanities, and technical/vocational. In addition, the themes of attrition identified by Tinto (adjustment, isolation, difficulty, and incongruence) are used as a paradigm to examine the possible reasons for the positive impact of the SI program. Several SI programs reported the use of SI for faculty development: faculty serve as SI supervisors and adopt SI sessions strategies into their own lectures; faculty SI supervisors provide requested feedback to the course professors that they observe concerning class presentation activities; and faculty who observe SI sessions report using more student-led collaborative learning activities during their class sessions.

Martin, D. C., Blanc, R. A., & DeBuhr, L. (1982). Supplemental Instruction: A model for increasing student performance and persistence. In L. Noel, & R. Levitz (Eds.), How to succeed with academically underprepared students: A catalog of successful practices (pp. 75-79). Iowa City, IA: ACT National Center for the Advancement of Educational Practices.
This article provides a basic overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. Included is a research study of 746 students enrolled in seven Arts and Sciences courses in Spring semester 1980. SI participants earned higher mean final course grades (2.70 vs. 2.25) and received lower rates of D, F and withdrawal grades (18.4% vs. 44.0%).

Martin, D. C., Blanc, R. A., & DeBuhr, L. (1983). Retention with integrity through Supplemental Instruction. Kansas City, MO: The University of Missouri-Kansas City, Student Learning Center.
This monograph provides a comprehensive overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. It can serve as a training manual for SI supervisors and SI leaders to implement the program on a college campus. Topics include: overview of SI; establishing and conducting SI sessions; guidelines for SI leaders; SI program evaluation procedures; writing lab adaptations of SI; adapting SI to English composition classes; SI on a small campus; student denial; and diagnosing learning problems of gifted adults.

Martin, D. C., Blanc, R. A., DeBuhr, L., Alderman, H., Garland, M., & Lewis, C. (1983). Supplemental Instruction: A model for student academic support. Kansas City, MO: The University of Missouri-Kansas City and ACT National Center for the Advancement of Educational Practices
This monograph provides a basic overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model: basic overview; UMKC student academic performance in seven Arts and Sciences courses during 1980 reported earlier in the 1983 article by Blanc, DeBuhr and Martin (final course grades, impact of student motivation, reenrollment rates, performance of students separated by upper and lower quartile scores, and changes in D, F and withdrawal rates for the courses) and new studies examining students of color and medical school students; generating campus awareness and support; case studies of SI's use outside of UMKC (Maple Woods Community College - MO, Bethel College - KS, Kansas State University - KS); training SI leaders; and evaluation procedures for program review.

Martin, D. C., Hall, P. T., & Arendale, D. (1993). Use of Supplemental Instruction at an urban high school. In D. C. Martin, & D. Arendale (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses 2nd ed., (pp. 31-33). Columbia, SC: National Resource Center for The Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 354 839)  The authors describe the use of Supplemental Instruction -- traditionally a post-secondary academic program -- with an urban high school in Kansas City, Missouri. Westport High School is a culturally-diverse school located in the central city. Over half the students were one or two years behind grade levels in reading and mathematics and an equal number were economically disadvantaged. SI was provided to students enrolled in 9th and 10th grade English and history classes. SI sessions were scheduled during a scheduled time during the school day three times each week. Research studies suggested that there was improvement in final course grades of students in the English (A and B grades: 28.7% vs. 13.6% before SI; F grades: 23.2% vs. 32.7% before SI) and history classes. Interviews with students and teachers suggest that participation in the SI program also promoted higher levels of class participation and higher achievement on standardized test scores.

Martin, D. C., & Hurley, M. (2005). Supplemental Instruction. In M. L. Upcraft, J. N. Gardner & B. O. Barefoot (Eds.), Challenging and supporting the first-year student: A handbook for improving the first year of college (308-319). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. This chapter focuses on defining and illustrating Supplemental Instruction (SI) in the context of its development at the University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) Academic Support and Mentoring, its validation by the U.S. Department of Education (USDOE), its dissemination nationally and internationally to colleges and universities, and its applications to first-year courses and programs as well as distance learning.
 

Martin, D. C., Lorton, M., Blanc, R. A., & Evans, C. (1977). The learning center: A comprehensive model for colleges and universities. Grand Rapids, MI: Aquinas College. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 162 294)
Intended for use by educators responsible for developing post-secondary learning centers, this manual emphasizes the design and administration of such centers rather than the various aspects of skill instruction. Its seven chapters discuss the concept of a learning center; the components of the model, including Supplemental Instruction, recruitment and selection of staff, the training of tutorial and teacher assistants, learning materials, distinct labs, noncredit readiness in content areas, and extension of the model; diagnosis of institutional and individual needs; instructional methodology, specifically listening, notetaking, study skills, vocabulary, and comprehension; affective consideration, with a discussion of a "relaxation" project; evaluation, including sample data and forms; and proposal preparation.

Martin, D. C., & Wilcox, F. K. (1996). Supplemental Instruction: Helping students to help each other. In G. Wisker, & S. Brown (Eds.), Enabling student learning: Systems and strategies (pp. 97-101). Birmingham, England: Kogan Page Publishers and the Staff and Educational Developmental Association (SEDA). (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 396 611)
This chapter reviews the development of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model in the United States and its recent introduction into the United Kingdom. Several additions were made to the SI model with its use in the United Kingdom. Due to scheduling conflicts for SI leaders, it is necessary to provide several SI leaders in each course. An advantage of this decision is that the SI program provides more professional development opportunities for the SI leaders. Another feature of the SI program in the UK is the common practice of the SI leader providing feedback to the course professor and the course tutor concerning student comprehension of the lecture material. The authors emphasize the need for academic support and learning enrichment for all students in higher education.

Maxwell, M. (1979). Overcoming problems of learning services. In M. Maxwell (Ed.), Improving student learning skills (pp. 158-160). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers, Inc.
The author provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program.
Deanna Martin, creator of the SI model, is quoted regarding the relationship between the faculty member and the SI program. The SI leader can serve as a feedback mechanism for the course professor regarding the comprehension level of the students if invited to do so. This provides an opportunity for the course professor to review or clarify lecture content at the next class meeting. Martin urges caution not to use the SI program as a tool by administrators to change teacher behavior or the bond of cooperation between the SI program and the professor may be placed at risk.

Maxwell, M. (1997). Successful programs and strategies for teaching high-risk college students. In M. Maxwell (Ed.), Improving student learning skills (2nd ed., pp. 158-178). Clearwater, FL: H&H Publishing Company, Inc.
This chapter provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program and Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI) program on pages 169 to 172. A case study of SI at California State University at Long Beach indicated that the program was modified due to financial funding problems to turn SI into an adjunct course bearing one unit of nonbaccalaureate credit toward financial aid and other full-time enrollment obligations. Academically disadvantaged students (e.g., TRIO or Equal Opportunity Program students) attend SI at higher rates due to this higher level of commitment. Grades are based on a credit/no credit basis. Comparing performance of students with their own peer group reveals that underprepared students usually benefit more from SI that traditional students.

McCormick, J. (1983). Writing lab adaptions of Supplemental Instruction. In D. C. Martin (Ed.), Supplemental Instruction: A model for student academic support (pp. 87-93). Kansas City, MO: The University of Missouri-Kansas City and the ACT National Center for the Advancement of Educational Practices.
The author describes how the Supplemental Instruction (SI) was customized for use within the University of Missouri-Kansas City's writing laboratory. Since students in the group are enrolled in the same content course (e.g., American history), all have a common experience and see direct application of their writing skills since the discussions are not in isolation from the content course for which the writing assignment is due. This increases student motivation and aids in the transfer effect to other content courses. Peer review and mutual responsibility for critiquing each other's work encourages collaboration.

McDaniel, A. (2008). Recruiting and training Supplemental Instruction leaders. In M. E. Stone & G. Jacobs (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses (No. 7, 3rd ed., pp. 39-56) Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transition.

McDaniel, A. (2008). Epilogue: Concluding the first 35 years. In M. E. Stone & G. Jacobs (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses (No. 7, 3rd ed., pp. 91-92) Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transition.

McGraw, S. P., & Newkirk, S. L. (1995). Adaptation of Supplemental Instruction with mentoring support at Anne Arundel Community College. In S. P. McGraw, & S. L. Newkirk (Eds.), Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education Program Book . Washington, D.C.: Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education, U.S. Department of Education.
This chapter describes how Rosemary Wolfe, FIPSE Project Director for Supplemental Instruction (SI) with Mentoring Support, will be working with Ashland Community College in Kentucky to adapt the SI program for underprepared students enrolled in required general education courses; Daytona Community College to adapt the program to math courses and the peer review process; Dutchess Community College to adapt the program to lab courses; and Community College of Philadelphia to adapt the program to student success in difficult courses. Expected outcomes for faculty include increased interactive teaching skills and the development of new teaching approaches, an awareness of their teaching styles and an understanding of students' needs.

McGraw, S. P., & Newkirk, S. L. (1996). Disseminating proven reforms: Supplemental Instruction with mentoring support at Anne Arundel Community College. In S. P. McGraw, & S. L. Newkirk (Eds.), Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education Program Book . Washington, D.C.: Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education, U.S. Department of Education.
This chapter describes how Rosemary Wolfe, FIPSE Project Director for Supplemental Instruction (SI) with Mentoring Support, worked Ashland Community College in Kentucky, Daytona Community College, Dutchess Community College, and the Community College of Philadelphia. Expected outcomes for faculty include increased interactive teaching skills and the development of new teaching approaches, an awareness of their teaching styles and an understanding of students' needs.

McGuire, S.Y. (2006). The Impact of Supplemental Instruction on teaching students how to learn. In M. E. Stone & G. Jacobs (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: New Visions for Empowering Student Learning. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco.

This chapter presents information on the transformation of higher education, the learning theories on which the Supplemetnal Instruction model is based, and the characteristics of today's student population, and concludes with a look at the benefits and challenges of implementing SI in the twenty-first century.

McMillin, J. (1983). Adapting Supplemental Instruction to English composition classes. In D. C. Martin (Ed.), Supplemental Instruction: A model for student academic support (pp. 95-100). Kansas City, MO: The University of Missouri-Kansas City and The ACT National Center for the Advancement of Educational Practices.  This chapter describes the customization of the Supplemental Instruction model for use in English composition classes at Point Loma College (CA). The author emphasized the following elements of SI with use in the composition classes: discovery of learning in a non-threatening environment; a focus on developing a "co-worker" relationship between the SI leader and students; an awareness of process as well as content in teaching and learning; importance of reasoning skills in developing writing competency; and the role of the student as a responsible agent in his/her own educational process. This chapter provides a simulated conversation of an editing session between the SI leader and the student to illustrate the above elements.

McMillin, J. (1993). Adapting Supplemental Instruction to English composition classes. In D. C. Martin, & D. Arendale (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses 2nd ed., (pp. 34-37). Columbia, SC: National Resource Center for The Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 354 839)
This chapter, initially published in 1983, describes the customization of the Supplemental Instruction model for use in English composition classes. The author emphasized the following elements of SI with use in the composition classes: discovery of learning in a non-threatening environment; a focus on developing a "co-worker" relationship between the SI leader and students; an awareness of process as well as content in teaching and learning; importance of reasoning skills in developing writing competency; and the role of the student as a responsible agent in his/her own educational process. This chapter provides a simulated conversation of an editing session between the SI leader and the student to illustrate the above elements.

Muraskin, L. (1997). "Best practices" in Student Support Services: A study of five exemplary sites. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. Available: ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 416 784
This report examines "best practices" in the delivery of Student Support Services (SSS), one of the Special Programs for Disadvantaged Students collectively known as the TRIO programs. The study is based on case studies that were conducted in five local SSS projects during early 1996. The five projects were drawn from 30 projects in the National Study of Student Support Services, a longitudinal survey of students begun in 1991. A common theme of academic support at all five institutions was with providing learning assistance for developmental and popular freshman courses. Two of the five sites used Supplemental Instruction (SI) as an integral part of academic enrichment for SSS students. Another site used a variation of SI.

Muhr, C., & Martin, D. C. (2006). TeamSI: A resource for integrating and improving learning. In M. E. Stone & G. Jacobs (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: New visions for empowering student learning (pp. 85-94). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.  A permutation of the original program, TeamSI represents an ambitious attempt to improve both students’ deep understanding of their professional discipline and their self-development as more mature learners and leaders.

Ochae, R. (1995). Writers at risk: An experiment with Supplemental Instruction in freshman writing classrooms. Black Hills State University Research and Scholarly Work Symposium Research and scholarly work symposium proceedings (pp. 67-72). Spearfish, SD: Black Hills State University.
This book chapter describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) during Fall 1994 at Black Hills State University (Spearfish, SD) with a beginning writing class (English 101). The institution has an open admission policy and high attrition and dropout rates in the first writing course. To measure effectiveness of SI, a diagnostic essay (EDE) was administered to the English 101 students, based on a common essay prompt and scored holistically by the entire English faculty. Results suggested that SI helped SI participants to improve writing skills (gain of 15.7% on the EDE vs. 14.0% for courses taught by the same professor but without SI), earn higher mean final course grades (2.6 vs. 2.5, reduce failure rates (13.8% vs. 16.0%), and lower course withdrawal rates (6.1% vs. 6.9%).

Painter, S. L., Bailey, R., Gilbert, M., & Prior, J. (2006). New directions for Supplemental Instruction. In M. E. Stone & G. Jacobs (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: New visions for empowering student learning (pp. 73-83). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. SI can expand past the boundaries of on-campus review sessions. This chapter examines how SI can be implemented in university teaching-learning centers and in thematically based learning communities and shows how SI is meeting the needs of high school students. Finally, it explores an avant-garde program that has piloted the implementation of virtual SI sessions.

Peters, C. B. (1990). Rescue the perishing: A new approach to Supplemental Instruction. In The Changing Face of College Teaching (pp. 59-68). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 344 539)
This chapter describes an experiment of providing an a modified version of the Supplemental Instruction program at the University of Rhode Island (Kingston, RI). The author is an associate professor of sociology and anthropology. Rather than hiring student SI leaders to facilitate the SI sessions, the course professor performs the task. According to the author, these out-of-class sessions appear similar to ones facilitated by student leaders. Participating students report satisfaction with the sessions.

Price, M., & Rust, C. (1994). Introducing Supplemental Instruction in business courses in a modular programme. In C. Rust, & J. Wallace (Eds.), Helping students to learn from each other: Supplemental Instruction (pp. 31-36). Birmingham, England: Staff and Educational Development Association.
Oxford Brookes University in the United Kingdom is using the Supplemental Instruction program in the School of Business. SI was implemented with larger business courses (400 to 500 students) to enhance the learning environment for the students enrolled in these elective courses that are outside their field of study. Rather than paying the SI leaders, they were given academic credit for the experience. The research studies of students enrolled in the targeted courses suggested a positive correlation (p < .05) between SI participation (two or more times) and higher final course grades (Introduction to Business, 61.4 percentile vs. 56.2 percentile for non-SI participants; Managing Concepts, 60.7 vs. 54.6; and Changing Environment of Business, 56.6 vs. 46.2) . The SI participants attracted a higher percentage of female and older students than represented in the total class.

Rich, C. E., Williford, A. M., & Kousaleous, S. L. (1997). Supplemental Instruction at Ohio University: Improving student performance. In P. L. Dwinell, & J. L. Higbee (Eds.), Developmental Education: Enhancing student retention (pp. 37-44). Carol Stream, IL: National Association for Developmental Education.  This study of student performance compared final course grades of students who attended Supplemental Instruction (SI) study sessions with grades of those who did not attend SI study sessions during the period of Fall 1993 through Spring 1995. Results indicated that, with gender and aptitude controlled, students who attended SI study sessions generally finished the targeted course with higher grades than students who did not attend, and that frequent attendees completed courses with final course grades that were generally higher than infrequent or non-attenders. Students who most need academic support, as identified by lower aptitude scores, comprised a majority of attenders. Poor performance, early withdrawal, and failure rates were lower among SI attenders than among non-attenders for most courses in which SI was offered.

Richardson, S. (1994). How Supplemental Instruction came to Britain. In C. Rust, & J. Wallace (Eds.), Helping students to learn from each other: Supplemental Instruction (pp. 15-16). Birmingham, England: Staff and Educational Development Association.  The author describes the role of Dennis Congos -- a Certified SI Trainer -- in introducing the Supplemental Instruction model at Kingston University in the United Kingdom.

Romoser, M. A., Rich, C. E., Williford, A. M., & Kousaleous, S. L. (1997). Supplemental Instruction at Ohio University: Improving student performance. In P. L. Dwinell, & J. L. Higbee (Eds.), Developmental Education: Enhancing student retention (pp. 37-44). Carol Stream, IL: National Association for Developmental Education.
This study of student performance compared final course grades of students who attended Supplemental Instruction o(SI) study sessions with grades of those who did not attend SI study sessions during the period of Fall 1993 through Spring 1995 at Ohio University (Athens, OH). Results suggested that, with gender and aptitude controlled, students who attended SI study sessions generally finished the targeted course with higher grades and lower rates of withdrawal than students who did not attend, and that frequent attenders (five or more times per academic term in one course) completed courses with final course grades that were generally higher than moderate (two to four times) infrequent (one time only) or non-attenders. For example, during Fall 1994 the following results occurred for higher aptitude students: non SI, 2.55; infrequent, 2.55; moderate, 2.73; and frequent, 2.95. For lower aptitude students for the same academic term: non SI, 1.94; infrequent, 2.09; moderate, 2.27; and frequent, 2.41. Through student evaluations three factors emerged that influenced student attendance: (1) course content must be perceived as challenging, but manageable; (2) cooperating faculty member must endorse both the SI program, SI leader, and encourage students to attend SI; and (3) students must have some understanding of what SI is and what to expect at a study session. A locally-produced SI introductory video has been a helpful promotional took, second only to participant endorsements.

Rust, C., & Wallace, J. (Eds.). (1994). Helping students to learn from each other: Supplemental Instruction. Birmingham, England: Staff and Educational Development Association
This monograph provides a comprehensive review of Supplemental Instruction in the United Kingdom: overview of SI; background of introduction of SI; use of SI for staff and faculty development; benefits of SI for both the students and the SI leaders; statistical research reports; and eight case studies illustrating the experience of implementing SI into British higher education courses.

Spencer, G., & Wallace, J. (1994). Conceptualizing Supplemental Instruction. In C. Rust, & J. Wallace (Eds.), Helping students to learn from each other: Supplemental Instruction (pp. 9-14). Birmingham, England: Staff and Educational Development Association.  This article places Supplemental Instruction into its appropriate role within British higher education. SI is compared and contrasted with collaborative learning, tutorials, and roles of the instructor. It is emphasized that SI focuses on the student learning process.

Stone, M. E., & Jacobs, G. (2006). Supplemental Instruction: New visions for empowering student learning. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 106. In an ever-changing academic environment, an established academic support model is providing its ability to meet the needs of today’s educational landscape. Supplemental Instruction (SI) was introduced over thirty years ago to help students in these difficulty courses be successful. This issue of New Directions for Teaching and Learning both introduces basic tenets of SI to those who do not know it and brings those familiar with the method up-to-date on how far it has come and where it is headed in the future.

Stone, M. E., Jacobs, G., & Hayes, H. (2006). Supplemental Instruction: Student perspectives in the 21st century. In D. B. Lundell, J. L. Higbee, I. M., Duranczyk & E. Goff (Eds.), Student standpoints about academic access programs in higher education (pp. 129-141). Minneapolis: The Center for Research on Developmental Education and Urban Literacy. This qualitative study examined students’ perspectives of Supplemental Instruction (SI), a now well-established student academic assistance program. Consideration was given to what students perceived were the benefits and frustrations with SI, the reasons for attending verses not attending, and whether SI serves students’ needs today as effectively as it has over the last 3 decades. Results indicated that SI is still a beneficial program for many students, though some voiced frustration with the model’s principles of information discovery through collaborative learning.

Stout, M. L., & McDaniel, A. J. (2006). Benefits to Supplemental Instruction leaders. In M. E. Stone & G. Jacobs (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: New visions for empowering student learning (pp. 55-62). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. SI leaders attain a great many benefits as a result of their participation in SI leadership activities. The chapter examines what SI leaders can expect to gain.

Stone, M. E., & Jacobs, G. (2008). Supplemental Instruction: Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses (Monograph No. 7, 3rd ed.). Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transition.

Stratton, C. B. (1998). Transitions in Developmental Education: Interviews with Hunter Boylan and David Arendale. In P. L. Dwinell, & J. L. Higbee (Eds.), The Role of Developmental Education in Preparing Successful College Students (pp. 25-36). Columbia, SC: The National Association for Developmental Education and the National Center for the Study of the Freshmen Year Experience and Students in Transition.
In this book chapter the author interviews two leaders in the field of developmental education. Hunter Boylan directs the National Center for Developmental Education. David Arendale directs national dissemination of Supplemental Instruction. Both have served as past presidents of NADE. Arendale talks about how developmental education must be "mainstreamed" into the college curriculum rather than continuing with the current model of separate tracks of courses and support for students who need academic assistance. Supplemental Instruction and Video-Based Supplemental Instruction are cited as examples for embedding academic assistance into college-level courses. Brief overviews are provided for both programs. He suggests that SI and VSI present an acceptable way for accomplishing the mission of developmental education which is politically acceptable to policy makers at the institution, state, and national level.

Taylor, G. T., Healy, C. E., & Macdonald, M. (1994). Engineering educational development: Raising the quality through partnerships. In J. Wallace (Eds.), Kingston University HEFCE Supplemental Instruction Project (pp. 225-230). London, England: Kingston University.  The changes which face education today make it essential that quality is raised by moving from a teaching to a learning culture. Supplemental Instruction (SI) was used to create a partnerships between student, staff and employers working together to develop a learning environment in the Department of Energy and Environmental Technology at Glasgow Caledonian University in Glasgow, England. Students indicated the following reasons for SI participation: students want to work in peer groups; students recognize the academic difficulty of their courses; and students believe that peer groups are a source of information and help for them. In an evaluation of the SI program, SI leaders indicated growth in the following areas: verbal and nonverbal communications, learning techniques, interpersonal communication skills, consideration of college major change to a teaching career, and gaining employment skills that makes them more attractive to potential employers.

Wallace, J. (1994). Kingston University HEFCE Supplemental Instruction Project: 1993-94. London, England: Kingston University.
This report review four years of development and research into the use of Supplemental Instruction at Kingston University in the United Kingdom. An additional emphasis area for the SI model has been with staff and faculty development. Included are reports from Kingston University, Glasgow Caledonian University, University of Central Lancashire, Luton University, University of Brighton, and Oxford Brookes University.

Wallace, J. (1994). Provoking the teaching and learning debate. In J. Wallace (Eds.), Kingston University HEFCE Supplemental Instruction Project (pp. 99-117). London, England: Kingston University. This chapter contains responses from several educators regarding the impact of Supplemental Instruction (SI) with improving the learning environment for college students in the United Kingdom. The SI program has attracted considerable attention from student unions and unionized teacher trade unions since it has become another partner in the learning process. UK educators who have implemented the SI program have been very careful to position SI as an enhancement to the learning process rather than an alternative to traditional means of delivering instruction to students. Teaching and learning are carefully separated with the UK system.

Wallace, J. (1996). Peer tutoring: A collaborative approach. In S. Wolfendale, & J. Corbett (Eds.), Opening doors: Learning support in higher education (pp. 101-116). London, England: Cassell Publishers.
This chapter is a description of how the Supplemental Instruction program was customized for use in the United Kingdom. The key to the success of the program was effective awareness raising for academic staff, the training of the student leaders and the effective management of the scheme. Quotations from SI leaders and faculty members cite a variety of reasons for support for the SI program.

Wallace, J., & Rye, P. D. (1994). What is Supplemental Instruction? In C. Rust, & J. Wallace (Eds.), Helping students to learn from each other: Supplemental Instruction (pp. 7-8). Birmingham, England: Staff and Educational Development Association.  This article provides a short overview for how the Supplemental Instruction program is most often implemented in the British higher education system.

Widmar, G. E. (1994). Supplemental Instruction: From small beginnings to a national program. In D. C. Martin, & D. Arendale (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Increasing achievement and retention (pp. 3-10). San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass, Inc.  The chief student affairs officer at the University of Missouri-Kansas City offers a historical review of the development and implementation of Supplemental Instruction (SI). The SI program was first implemented with the Dental, Medical, and Pharmacy schools since an unacceptable rate of students were leaving the institution. Later the SI program was expanded to the College of Arts and Sciences. The author describes the administrative and political issues that must be addressed to meet issues important to administrators and faculty members. Since the Division of Student Affairs views its programs as cocurricular rather than extracurricular, administrative placement of the SI program with Student Affairs was a natural fit for the campus. Faculty and administrative support for SI remains for the following reasons: SI supports cultural diversity; SI supports critical thinking; SI supports student retention and academic performance; and SI is both replicable and adaptable.

Widmar, G. E., & DeBuhr, L. (1987). Supplemental Instruction: Meeting the academic development needs of students at urban universities. In A. Artibise, & W. Fraser (Eds.), New Directions for Urban Universities: International Perspectives . Winnipeg, Canada: Institute of Urban Studies.
This book chapter discusses the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) as a strategy to support the academic success of students.

Wilcox, F. K. (1993). Reasons educators and students choose Supplemental Instruction. In D. C. Martin, & D. Arendale (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses 2nd ed., (pp. 27-30). Columbia, SC: National Resource Center for The Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service, No. ED 354 839)
In this chapter a variety of factors are identified that have been reported as significant in generating interest by educators and students with Supplemental Instruction. These factors include: SI supports high academic standards; cost-effectiveness of the SI program; meets immediate pragmatic needs of students; SI avoids a remedial/developmental image; SI sessions are non-threatening for students; SI sessions develop a community of supportive learners; and SI helps students to develop transferable study strategies..

Wilcox, F. K. (1995). Supplemental Instruction and efficiency in learning. In M. T. Keeton, B. Mayo-Wells, J. Porosky, & B. Sheckley (Eds.), Efficiency in adult higher education: A practitioner' handbook (pp. 102-107). College Park, MD: The University of Maryland University College, Institute for Research on Adults in Higher Education.
This chapter provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. The SI program is efficient since it provides a highly effective academic support program (higher grades, lower course withdrawals, higher reenrollment and graduation rates) for a moderate cost by employing student facilitators. Since the SI sessions occur outside of class, it preserves the time available for the course professor and allows them to more efficiently use their class time addressing the course material rather than using a portion of the time to address issues best addressed during the SI sessions.

Wilcox, F. K. (1999). Supplemental Instruction Leader Manual. Kansas City, MO: The University of Missouri-Kansas City.
This manual is used during training trainings to equip faculty and staff members from other postsecondary institutions to implement their own Supplemental Instruction (SI) programs. The interactive manual covers a wide range of practical issues for someone who wishes to lead their SI sessions. The manual is used during the SI Supervisor trainings that are held in Kansas City, MO on a quarterly basis and during custom training sessions that are held on individual campuses. The trainings are designed to train institutional leaders to return to their home campus and to train their own SI leaders using this and other materials.

Wilcox, F. K. (1999). Supplemental Instruction Supervisor Manual. Kansas City, MO: The University of Missouri-Kansas City.
This manual is used during training trainings to equip faculty and staff members from other postsecondary institutions to implement their own Supplemental Instruction (SI) programs. The interactive manual covers a wide range of practical issues for someone who wishes to start their SI program. The manual is used during the SI Supervisor trainings that are held in Kansas City, MO on a quarterly basis and during custom training sessions that are held on individual campuses.

Wilcox, F. K., & Jacobs, G. (2008). Thirty-five years of Supplemental Instruction: Reflections on study groups and student learning. In M. E. Stone & G. Jacobs (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses (No. 7, 3rd ed., pp. vii-x) Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transition.

Wilcox, F. K. (2008). Implementing a new Supplemental Instruction program. In M. E. Stone & G. Jacobs (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses (No. 7, 3rd ed., pp. 29-38) Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transition.

Yancy, S. M. (2006). The impact of supplemental instruction on teaching students how to learn. In M. E. Stone & G. Jacobs (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: New visions for empowering student learning (pp. 3-10). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. This chapter describes the characteristics of today’s student population, looks at the learning theories on which the Supplemental Instruction model is based, and provides an overview of the benefits of and challenges to implementing SI in the twenty-first century.

Zaritsky, J. S., & Toce, A. (2006). Supplemental Instruction at a community college: The four pillars. In M. E. Stone & G. Jacobs (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: New visions for empowering student learning (pp. 23-32). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. This chapter describes how Supplemental Instruction has, since, 1993, been successful in improving grades and reducing failure in high-risk courses at LaGuardia Community College, an urban institution.

Zerger, S. (1994). Supplemental Instruction in the humanities. In D. C. Martin, & D. Arendale (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Increasing achievement and retention (pp. 41-52). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc.  Supplemental Instruction sessions in the humanities must differ from those in other disciplines because the epistemology and the axiology differ: a) prior knowledge; b) audience expectations; c) the nature of claims or evidence. Some of the issues important for many SI sessions: need to focus on the big picture; expansion of information rather than data reduction (common in science); careful use of language; importance of writing activities; and role of authority and evidence.

Zerger, S. Clark-Unite, C. & Smith, L. (2006). How Supplemental Instruction benefits faculty, administration, and institutions.  In M.E. Stone & G. Jacobs (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: New vision for empowering student learning. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco.

This chapter offers a case study of the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa, where SI has acted as more than a student academic development program by also addressing faculty and curriculum development.

Zerger, S. (2008). Theoretical frameworks that inform the Supplemental Instruction model. In M. E. Stone & G. Jacobs (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses (No. 7, 3rd ed., pp. 21-28) Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transition. 

Zerger, S. (2008). Strategies for adapting Supplemental Instruction to specific academic disciplines. In M. E. Stone & G. Jacobs (Eds.), Supplemental Instruction: Improving first-year student success in high-risk courses (No. 7, 3rd ed., pp. 57-65) Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transition.



 

Section Three: Journal Articles

Blanc, R. A., DeBuhr, L., & Martin, D. C. (1983). Breaking the attrition cycle: The effects of Supplemental Instruction on undergraduate performance and attrition. Journal of Higher Education, 54(1), 80-89
This article concerns an evaluation of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. The research study looked at the academic performance of 746 students enrolled in seven Arts and Sciences courses during Spring 1980. A variety of research studies were completed using data gathered from this and subsequent academic terms. SI participants in comparison with non-SI participants of similar demographic background earned higher levels of academic achievement. The first study looked at mean final course grades and the rate of D, F and course withdrawals for three groups: SI participants, non-SI participants, and motivational control non-SI participants. Students assigned to the motivational control group were those who, on a Likert scale, indicated higher interest in attending SI sessions, but who were prevented from attending because of scheduling conflicts (e.g., work, class). The final course grades favored the SI participants (2.50, DFW rate of 18.4%, p< .01) over the motivational control non-SI group (2.36, DFW rate of 26.5%) and other non-SI group (1.57, DFW rate of 44.0%). SI and non-SI participants were tracked regarding reenrollment rates for two succeeding academic terms. In both cases the results favored the former SI participants (Fall 1980: SI 77.4% vs. non-SI 67.3%; Spring 1981: SI 73.2% vs. non-SI 60.0%). When the students were separated by quartile groups on the basis of standardized entrance exams, SI participants outperformed their counterparts (Top quartile: final grade SI 3.10 vs. non-SI 2.30, reenrollment following term SI 86% vs. non-SI 78%; Bottom quartile: final grade SI 1.72 vs. non-SI 0.88, reenrollment following term SI 74% vs. non-SI 62%). There were long-term reductions in the percentage of D, F and withdrawals in the courses where SI was offered to students (from 34% before introduction of the SI program down to 18% during the SI program's second year). This article was the first one published outside of developmental education publications to gain national attention concerning the SI model.

Blanc, R. A., & Martin, D. C. (1994). Supplemental Instruction: Increasing student performance and persistence in difficult academic courses. Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 69(6), 452-454  The authors describe the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) with medical students to earn higher final course grades in historically difficult courses. The SI process has been used successfully with students who are preparing for the USMLE Step I examination. The authors state that SI can strengthen a prematriculation program for students whose MCAT scores place them in the high-risk category for completing the medical school curriculum. To maximize learning efficiency for students in the prematriculation program, the authors suggest that a small-group preview session precedes each lecture and a small-group review follows. The article concludes with a short overview of Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI).

Bocock, J. (1993, February). Supplemental Instruction: Striking a balance in the curriculum. The Lecturer (The University & College Lecturers' Union), 7
The Supplemental Instruction (SI) program is cited by Jean Bocock, Assistant Secretary for Higher Education in the United Kingdom, as one way to deal with a number of pressing educational needs: dealing with rising student to teacher ratios [8.5:1 in 1980 to almost 20:1 today]; shifting towards student-centered learning; and capitalizing upon the resources of students to teach other students. One concern expressed by NATFHE, the University & College Lecturers' Union, is that SI not be used as a cheap alternative to hiring trained staff and paying them a proper salary.

Bowles, T. J., McCoy, A. C., & Bates, S. (2008, Spring). The effect of Supplemental Instruction on timely graduation. College Student Journal, 43 (3), 853-859.

Bowles, T. J., & Jones, J. (2004). The effect of Supplemental Instruction on retention: A bivariate probit model. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory, and Practice, 5(4), 431-437.

Bowles, T. J., & Jones, J. (2003). An analysis of the effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction: The problem of selection bias and limited dependent variables. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory, and Practice, 5(2), 235-243.

Boylan, H. R. (1999). Exploring alternatives to remediation. Journal of Developmental Education, 22(3), 2-4, 6, 8, 10
In this journal article Dr. Hunter Boylan, Director of the National Center for Developmental Education , the author explores five alternative ways to serve students who previously may have been served through traditional developmental education courses: (1) freshman year seminars; (2) Supplemental Instruction; (3) learning communities and collaborative learning; (4) paired courses; and (5) critical thinking instruction. For students that do not need the extensive time required by full academic-term length developmental courses, the five alternatives explored in the article might be as effective with the benefit of shorter investment of time, personnel, and money. The author cited three studies where SI has been especially effective with developmental students: (1) Blanc, DeBuhr, &
Martin, 1983; (2) Commander, Stratton, Callahan, & Smith, 1996; and (3) Ramirez, 1997.

Bridgham, R. G., & Scarborough, S. (1992). Effects of Supplemental Instruction in selected medical school courses. Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 67(10), 569-571
This article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in the College of Human Medicine of Michigan State University with courses in biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, genetics, gross anatomy, and histology. SI attendance was mandatory for all first- and second-year students who are on probation and optional for all others. A study of students enrolled in Biochemistry, Physiology, and Pharmacology courses between 1988 and 1990 suggests that SI attendance was correlated with higher mean final course grades. The authors suggest about twenty specific activities for SI sessions. In general, SI participants earned higher mean final course grades. The authors mentioned that the success of the SI program has encouraged the College to maintain an admissions policy that encourages a more diverse student population.

Burgan, W. Michael & Congos, D. H. (2008). The Student-Centered SI Leader and Carl Rogers. Research and Teaching in Developmental Education. 25 (1), 3-9.

Burgan, W. M. & Congos, D. H. (2004). The learning skills professional as a therapist? [monograph] Best Practices in Access and Retention in Higher Education. Center for Research on Developmental Education and Urban Literacy: University of Minnesota General College, 127-138.

Burmeister, S. L. (1996). Supplemental Instruction: An interview with Deanna Martin. Journal of Developmental Education, 20(1), 22-24, 26  This is the transcript of an interview with Dr. Deanna Martin, creator of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model. Issues discussed in the interview include: new innovations in the SI model; cost effectiveness of the model; use of SI in other countries; current educational climate in higher education; disagreement with mandatory testing and placement of students into tracked developmental education programs; challenges with lecture-based educational delivery systems with increasing student learning mastery; and future opportunities for use of SI and Video-based Supplemental Instruction.

Collins, W. (1982). Some correlates of achievement among students in a Supplemental Instruction program. Journal of Learning Skills, 2(1), 19-28
This article examined the effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at Cornell University by comparing the course-grade earned in four subjects (chemistry, mathematics, biology, and physics) and the GPA of 301 students enrolled in these courses with College Board Scholastic Aptitude Scores (Verbal and Math), assistance requested by the student, and high school rank. Even when SAT-scores and high school rank are held constant as in the standard multiple regression procedure used with this study, the results suggest that SI attendance made a significant contribution to the academic achievement of SI participants both with the individual course (Biology, Chemistry Mathematics) and the overall cumulative GPA. The research suggested when comparing students of equivalent SAT scores and high school rank, the following predictions would be warranted, SI participants would receive the following higher grades when compared with the non-SI counterparts: one full letter grade higher in Biology; three-fourths of a letter grade higher in Mathematics; and one-half letter grade higher in Chemistry. There were no predictive variables regarding final course grades in physics. The authors suggest that the strategies learned in SI are transferred to other courses and help improve academic achievement in those courses as well. The SI program is aimed at students admitted to Cornell through the Committee on Special Education Projects (COSEP). Most of these students are members of ethnic groups or from disadvantaged backgrounds.

Commander, N. E., & Smith, B. D. (1995). Developing adjunct reading and learning courses that work. Journal of Reading, 38(5), 352-360
This article explores a variation of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program to provide more time for students to develop reading and learning strategies. Rather than using the voluntary peer facilitated study review sessions based on the SI model, the learning assistance center at Georgia State University (Atlanta, GA) chose to create an adjunct course model. Like the SI model, a historically-difficult content course (History 113) was paired with an adjunct course (Learning Strategies for History or LSH). Students enrolled in both courses. Unlike SI, most students enrolled in the strategies courses were developmental. The LSH required students to apply the learning strategies to the companion History 113 course. Considering that the LSH students were less prepared academically than the general student population in the History 113 course, data suggests that the adjunct course was helpful since three quarters of the students passed the History 113 course with a final course grade of C or higher and their mean final course grade (2.3) with nearly the same as the other students (2.5). One of the recommendations for potential adopters of this model is that all students in the LSH course be enrolled in the same section of the content course (e.g., History 113). Failure to do so creates confusion in the LSH course if there are multiple sections of the content course with professors who may be teaching at with different rates, textbooks or content material.

Commander, N. E., Stratton, C. B., Callahan, C. A., & Smith, B. D. (1996). A learning assistance model for expanding academic support. Journal of Developmental Education, 20(2), 8-10, 12, 14, 16
This article provides a model for expanding the role of academic support in higher education. A learning program that formerly offered primarily developmental classes and a tutorial center later expanded to include course-related services of Supplemental Instruction (SI) and adjunct courses at Georgia State University (Atlanta, GA). During Fall 1993 a study in Political Science 101 suggested that SI was correlated with higher mean final course grades (2.7 for regular SI attenders, 2.4 for occasional attenders, and 1.9 for non-SI attenders). The authors suggest ten steps for expanding academic support: 1) consider campus uniqueness; 2) identify population; 3) identify courses; 4) build faculty support; 5) staff adjunct courses with seasoned faculty and SI learning sessions with thoroughly trained leaders; 6) market programs at several levels; 7) provide feedback to the professor of the content course throughout the quarter or semester; 8) involve the administration; 9) keep records; and 10) disseminate information.

Congos, D. H. & Priest, DeLaine.  (2008).  In-College Career Planning Curriculum Helps Student Build Careers.  eSource for College Transition, 5 (2), 11-12, 14.  

Congos, D. H. & Mack, A.  (2005).  Supplemental Instruction’s impact on students in two freshmen chemistry classes. Research and Teaching in Developmental Education, 21 (2), 43-64.   

Congos, D. H. (2003).  Health checklist for Supplemental Instruction (SI) programs. Learning Assistance Review: The Journal of the National College Learning Center Association, 8 (2), 29-45.  

Congos, D. H. & Stout, B.  (2003)).  The benefits of Supplemental Instruction (SI) leadership experience after graduation.  Research & Teaching in Developmental Education.  20 (1), 29-41

Congos, D. H. (2003).  Is Supplemental Instruction (SI) help helpful?  Research & Teaching in Developmental Education, 19 (2), 79-90.

 

Congos, D. H. (2002).  Playing the game of test.  The Learning Center Newsletter http://www.learningassistance.com/2002/Nov02/index.htm

 

Congos, D. H. (2002). How Supplemental Instruction (SI) stacks up against Chickering’s 7 principles for good practice in undergraduate education.  Research & Teaching in Developmental Education,  19 (1), 75-83.

Congos, D. H., Bain, D. W. (2001). A board work and note formatting model for learning mathematics coursework using writing.  The Learning Center Newsletter. http://www.attendance-tracking.com/Newsletter/Dec01.htm

Congos, D. H. Schoeps, Nancy (2003).  Inside Supplemental Instruction (SI) sessions: One model of what happens that improves grades and retention revisited.  Journal of Student Centered Learning, 1 (3), 159-170. (reprint)

Congos, Dennis, Stout, Barbara M. (2001). 20 FAQ's from Faculty about Supplemental Instruction Programs. Research and Teaching in Developmental Education v18 n1 p41-49.  Offers answers to 20 questions most frequently asked by faculty concerning supplemental instruction (SI) programs. Explains that SI instructors are usually students who have successfully completed a course that has been targeted as high-risk. States that students who attend SI sessions have a high course success rate overall, and that they persist and graduate at higher rates than other students.

Congos, D. H., Langsam, D. M., & Schoeps, N. (1997). Supplemental Instruction: A successful approach to learning how to learn College Introductory Biology. The Journal of Teaching and Learning, 2(1), 2-17
This article reviews the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte with students enrolled in Introductory Biology (Biology 1110), the first course of a two semester introductory biology sequence for non-majors. The data from Fall 1990 and Spring 1991 suggests that participation in SI has a positive impact on student academic performance. The final score for the SI participants was higher (Fall 1990: 2.72 vs. 1.94; Spring 1991: 2.83 vs. 1.95); the rate of A, B and C final course grades was higher (Fall 1990: 86.3% vs. 65.4%; Spring 1991: 78.6% vs. 62.5%); and the rate of D, F and course withdrawals was lower (Fall 1990: 13.7% vs. 34.6%; Spring 1991: 21.4% vs. 37.5%). A variety of additional statistical tests were conducted to test for the intervening nature of other variables (e.g., SAT verbal, SAT quantitative, SAT sum of SATV and SATQ, high school rank, predicted grade point average before matriculation based on SAT verbal and quantitative). After these additional tests, participation in SI was still found to be statistically significant.

Congos, D. H., & Schoeps, N. (1993). Does Supplemental Instruction really work and what is it anyway? Studies in Higher Education, 18(2), 165-176
The authors describe the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program as it operates at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte from 1987 to 1990. The initial portion of the article provides a general overview of the SI program. The Fall 1988 research study suggested that SI participation was positively correlated with higher mean final course grades (2.391 vs. 1.894) and lower withdrawals (17.7% vs. 37.9%). These favorable results are so in spite of the fact that SI attendees enter college with lower predicted academic potential.

Congos, D. H., & Schoeps, N. (1994). Does Supplemental Instruction really work and what is it anyway? Educational Administration Abstracts, 29(1), 52-53
This is a short summary of the authors article -- Does Supplemental Instruction really work and what is it anyway? -- that originally appeared in Studies in Higher Education (1993), vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 165-176. The authors describe the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program as it operates at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte from 1987 to 1990. The Fall 1988 research study suggested that SI participation was positively correlated with higher mean final course grades (2.391 vs. 1.894) and lower withdrawals (17.7% vs. 37.9%).

Congos, D. H., & Schoeps, N. (1997). A model for evaluating retention programs. Journal of Developmental Education, 21(2), 2-4, 6, 8, 24
This article presents a step-by-step model for analyzing the impact of retention programs on students. Data from a Supplemental Instruction (SI) program is used to demonstrate how this research is done. The seven steps include: identify the relevant variables; for each student in the class, gather the data on the independent variables chosen in Step 1; maintain on-going data on the information needed for the dependent variables; enter the data into a computer in an organized format that eases analysis; define the criteria that determines who is an attendee or participant; analyze the data using an appropriate data analysis software package; and set up the results in a readable manner, including relevant narratives necessary to explain and clarify the data. To illustrate the seven-step method, the researchers analyze the SI data from their campus regarding improved final course grades, reduction of D/F/W, and projected cost savings.

Congos, D. H., & Schoeps, N. (1998). Inside Supplemental Instruction sessions: One model of what happens that improves grades and retention. Research and Teaching in Developmental Education, 15(1), 47-61
After providing an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model, the authors describe three basic modes of operation in SI sessions: 1) building complete and accurate lecture notes; 2) formulating possible examination questions and answers; 3) conduct post examination survey. The cost effectiveness of the SI program was calculated on the basis of increased retention rates of SI participants. A study was conducted at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte with students enrolled in Introductory Biology (Biology 1110), the first course of a two semester introductory biology sequence for non-majors. The data from Fall 1990 suggests that participation in SI has a positive impact on student academic performance. The final score for the SI participants was higher (2.59 vs. 1.94); the rate of A, B and C final course grades was higher (86.3% vs. 65.5%); and the rate of D, F and course withdrawals was lower (13.7% vs. 34.5%). A variety of additional statistical tests were conducted to test for the intervening nature of other variables (e.g., SAT verbal, SAT quantitative, SAT sum of SATV and SATQ, high school rank, predicted grade point average before matriculation based on SAT verbal and quantitative). After these additional tests, participation in SI was still found to be statistically significant.

Congos, D. H., & Schoeps, N. (1999). Methods to determine the impact of SI programs on colleges and universities. Journal of College Student Retention, 1(1), 59-82. Direct reprint requests to: Dennis H. Congos, Supplemental Instruction Coordinator, University of Central Florida, Student Academic Resource Center, PC1 102, Orlando, FL 32816-3115.
This article presents three categories of approaches to assess the impact of Supplemental Instruction (SI) on an institution: anecdotal information, descriptive statistics, and inferential statistics. For SI programs required to justify their existence, the methods in this article presents assessment devices from simple testimony to rigorous inferential statistical data.

Donelan, M. (1995). An enterprising start: Innovative teaching and learning at the University College London. Universe: Innovation and Excellence at the University of Central Lancashire, 7(1), 14-15
This article describes a number of innovative learning practices being implemented at the University College London (the largest and oldest college in the federal University of London). Supplemental Instruction (SI) is one of the featured learning strategies at UCL. Paul Kohler, Sub-Dean in the Faculty of Laws cites benefits of the SI program that include: facilitates students' learning and understanding; prepares them for employment since they will have better skills for learning and applying new concepts.

Donelan, M., & Kay, P. (1998). Supplemental Instruction: Students helping students' learning at University College London (UCL) and University of Central Lancashire (UCLAN). The International Journal of Legal Education, 32(3), 287-299
The Supplemental Instruction (SI) program is used to meet the needs of first year students in their academic and personal development within the Law faculties of the University College London (UCL) and the University of Central Lancashire (UCLAN). The United Kingdom expansion of the SI model develops more holistically in cognitive and affective aspects of learning for both SI participants and SI leaders. The three law courses that had SI attached to them were English Legal System, Obligations 1, and Lawyers' Skills. There are several variations of SI within the UK use of the model: SI leaders are instructed to focus on facilitating the group discussion and not presenting course content material; SI leaders academic credit for their service through evaluation of a portfolio. Higher grades were recorded for SI participants and SI leaders when compared with non-participants. Interviews with SI participants revealed the following SI program benefits: enhanced academic understanding; enjoyed active learning; opportunity to clarify concepts; enjoyed the social aspects of meeting students of other classes; and developed personal confidence and reassurance. Benefits cited by the SI leaders included: opportunity to help others; developed communication, presentation, and leadership skills; increased knowledge of the academic content of the course.

Eastmond, J. N. (1997). Five academic development programs in the Eastern Cape Province: Reactions of an American academic in South Africa. Educational Technology Research & Development, 45(3), 129-134
This article describes the academic development programs at four tertiary institutions in South Africa (University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth Technikon, Rhodes University, and the University of Ft. Hare) as well as the development of a fifth new program at Border Technikon. Topics include cross-cultural differences; interviews; Supplemental Instruction (SI) that combined staff development and student academic development; integration of media support; and stages of program development. The author describes how a former SI student leader at the University of Port Elizabeth had been hired as an instructor at Border Technikon. Based on interviews, the previous experience as SI leader had a direct impact upon the new instructor's style of instructional delivery which utilized a high degree of academic inquiry and guided classroom discussion. The author commented about how the SI program was able to combine both staff development and student academic development. While this was a common pattern with South African institutions, the author commented that this was largely unknown in the U.S. The author subscribed to a four-stage model for faculty development previously articulated by DeBloois and Alder, 1974: 1). Awareness: through guest speakers, newsletters, and similar low impact activities; 2). Faculty support: small grants to faculty, seminars or trainings on aspects of tertiary teaching; 3). Faculty skills: larger investment in course development, more extensive involvement of individual faculty; and 4). Departmental curriculum: extensive development of a series of courses in the curriculum, organizational development efforts to change the prevailing reward structure.

Eastmond, J. N., Bartlett, G., & Terblanche, N. (1997). Planning for student involvement in a program of Supplemental Instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 45(3), 134-140
Supplemental Instruction (SI) is used at Border Technikon (South Africa) to increase student achievement in the Accounting and Management academic departments. The article describes the ways student involvement has been maintained through enlisting support from the Student Representative Council (SRC). Article topics include: training, funding considerations, effectiveness, student response, and student achievement results. A grant provided through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Tertiary Education Linkages Project (TELP) was used to start the SI program. The grant's major goals are to enhance staff and student development, both of which were enhanced through the SI program. SI leaders reported the following benefits to them from participation in the SI program: gained confidence in public speaking; developed new teaching strategies; and enjoyed more interaction with the course lecturers. Surveys of SI participants identified the following suggestions to improve the SI program: assign the same place each week for SI sessions; SI leaders should prepare before SI sessions to provide structure in case the attending students do not have a full agenda of items; SI leaders should receive additional interpersonal discussion group skill training; and that times should be set aside in class scheduling to allow for SI sessions to be scheduled. Analysis of final course examinations revealed that the number and percent of students who passed the final examination had doubled after the introduction of the SI program. The author found stated that this was remarkable considering that the class size had increased significantly, straining the ability of the course instructor to deal with the additional workload of students.

Eig, J. (1997, Spring). Supplemental Instruction programs: An effective way to increase student academic success? Journal of The Indiana University Student Personnel Association, 11-15
Supplemental Instruction (SI) is used at Indiana University (Bloomington) to increase academic achievement and retention. This article provides a basic overview of the SI program and data concerning its effectiveness at the institution. Challenges for implementing SI include: administratively SI programs require considerable coordination; SI leaders must be carefully selected for their academic and interpersonal skills; SI leaders must be trained prior to the academic term and receive supervision throughout the term; students must make a time commitment to attend SI sessions; and the institution must have sufficient professional staff to supervise the SI program.

Etter, E. R., Burmeister, S. L., & Elder, R. J. (in press). Supplemental Instruction in Accounting Principles courses. Accounting Education: Journal of Theory, Practice, and Research,
This study reports on student performance, and failure and withdrawal rates for 9,053 students enrolled in 132 Principles of Accounting classes from 21 four-year colleges and universities that have adopted the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. The overall SI participation rate was 26.8 percent. After providing an overview of the SI model, the data study concerning accounting occupies the rest of the paper. SI participants were found to have statistically significant higher average course grades (2.44 vs. 2.12), lower failure rates (5.9% vs. 15.3%) and lower withdrawal rates (10.6% vs. 19.8%) than non-participants enrolled in the target courses.

Farmer, B. (1991, Autumn). Helping learners to help themselves. Teaching and Learning Bulletin, (7), 2-3
This article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at several institutions in England. The author, a member of the Learning Methods Unit at Birmingham Polytechnic, describes research that was shared at a SI training coordinated by Kingston Polytechnic and the World Wild Life Fund for Nature.

Fitzgerald, N. (1997). The dropout dilemma. Careers and Colleges Magazine, 18(2), 14-17, 26
This article reviews the causes and cures for the high rate of college drop outs. The author interviewed a number of people for the article. One of those interviewed and quoted in the article is David Arendale, National Project Director for Supplemental Instruction (SI). Arendale describes how SI and its newest variation, Video-based Supplemental Instruction help students to integrate "what to learn" with "how to learn it.".

Fjortoft, N., Bentley, R., Crawford, D., & Russell, J. C. (1993). Evaluation of a Supplemental Instruction program at a college of pharmacy. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 57(3), 247-251
The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in terms of improved final grades, the effectiveness of the Supplemental Instruction program with students enrolled in a required first year pharmacy course at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy. Regular SI attendance was found to be significantly and positively related to final course grades for minority students. The authors postulate that the SI program might have been more effective if the SI program had been started the first week of class rather than being delayed until the third week. An additional factor that may have diminished the statistical impact of the SI program was that funds were not available to hire additional SI leaders since the average SI attendance at every session through the academic term was 52. The authors speculate that smaller groups might have been more helpful than these large groups since students could have been more active and be able to vocally participate with others.

Gaddis, B. A. (1994). The science learning center. Education, 115(2), 195-201
This article describes the services provided by the Science Learning Center at the University of Colorado in Colorado Springs. The Center had three primary objectives: (1) to identify the mathematical, computational, and conceptual skills needed by science students; (2) to assist students to master basic conceptual, mathematical, and computational skills that are common to most science disciplines; and (3) to develop skills in the use of basic and specific laboratory instrumentation required in most science disciplines. To help meet the second goal, Supplemental Instruction (SI) was offered in connection with historically-difficult science courses (e.g., physics or organic chemistry). Research studies suggested that SI participants received higher mean final course grades. Since the Center's creation in 1992: the number of students enrolled in basic science classes increased by 12 percent; the number of declared science majors increased by 37 percent; 72.1 percent of students who used services from the Center received a grade of B- or better; cum GPA of students who used the Center's services had an average of 3.03 vs. 2.49 for those who did not; the rate of attrition of science classes dramatically dropped (e.g., Chemistry I, the rate decreased from 39.7 percent to 5.7 percent; Physics III, 16.5 percent decreased to 4.8 percent; Biology I, 16.7 percent decreased to 3.2 percent. SI was one component of a comprehensive Center that contributed to these positive outcomes.

Gattis, Kenneth W. (2002). Responding to Self-Selection Bias in Assessments of Academic Support Programs: A Motivational Control Study of Supplemental Instruction. Learning Assistance Review v7 n2 p26-36. Argues that a controlled study of Supplemental Instruction (SI) sessions in college chemistry showed that participants benefited from SI sessions to an extent that cannot be explained only by their higher levels of motivation. Reports that SI includes services such as one-on-one, drop-in, and group tutoring.

Gunn, Barbara, Smolkowski, Keith, Biglan, Anthony, Black, Carol. (2002). Supplemental Instruction in Decoding Skills for Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Students in Early Elementary School: A Follow-Up. Journal of Special Education v36 n2 p69-79. A study involving 195 Hispanic and non-Hispanic students (grades K-2) with reading difficulties found that children who received supplemental reading instruction that taught basic decoding and comprehension skills for two years performed better on measures of word attack, word identification, oral reading fluency, vocabulary, and reading comprehension than comparison students.

Gunn, Barbara, Biglan, Anthony, Smolkowski, Keith, Ary, Dennis. (2000). The Efficacy of Supplemental Instruction in Decoding Skills for Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Students in Early Elementary School. Journal of Special Education v34 n2 p90-103. A study evaluated the effects of supplemental reading instruction for 256 students in kindergarten through Grade 3 (158 Hispanic). Children who received the supplemental reading instruction performed significantly better on measures of word attack, word identification, oral reading fluency, vocabulary, and reading comprehension after 15 to 16 months of instruction.

Gunning, F. (1993, February). Supplemental Instruction is not teaching. The Lecturer (The University & College Lecturers' Union), 2
This article describes how Supplemental Instruction (SI) is not used as a replacement for teaching by course instructors. The author is a professional tutor at Kingston University in England and is a member of the teacher's union. The author describes the unique benefits that SI provides for students: peer support; modeling of study strategies; focuses on learning, not teaching. Faculty and tutors that have SI attached to their courses are supportive of the SI program since it provides different services to students than their provide. They see no conflict in roles for them.

Hafer, Gary R. (2001). Ideas in Practice: Supplemental Instruction in Freshman Composition. Journal of Developmental Education v24 n3 p30-37.  Contends that, in the past, supplemental instruction (SI) has been underutilized in freshman composition courses, based on the assumption that SI is solely a need-based program. Argues that the goals of SI and freshman composition courses are actually complementary, and that collaboration between the two would link the classroom with academic assistance.

Hodges, Russ, Dochen, Carol W., Joy, Donna. (2001). Increasing Students' Success: When Supplemental Instruction Becomes Mandatory. Journal of College Reading and Learning v31 n2 p143-56. Finds that students in both mandated and voluntary Supplemental Instruction groups (academic support led by peer facilitators) in a high-risk, required, freshman-level, writing-intensive United States History course earned significantly higher course grades and semester grade point averages than students in the non-SI group. Finds no significant differences between voluntary and mandated SI participation.

Hodges, Russ ; White, William G. (2001).  Encouraging High-Risk Student Participation in Tutoring and Supplemental Instruction.  Journal of Developmental Education v24 n3 p2-10, 43.  Investigates the effect of high-risk students' use of self-monitoring strategies and instructors' use of verbal prompts on students' participation in tutoring and supplemental instruction, and on academic achievement. Finds a significant difference between mean semester GPA of supplemental instruction attendees and non-attendees, but none between tutoring participants and non-participants.

Hodges, R. B., Sellers. Diana E, & White, W. G. (1994). Peer teaching: The use of facilitators in college classes. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 26(2), 23-29
This article discusses the use of peer students as facilitators in the learning process. Supplemental Instruction (SI) is cited as another example of these student-led peer groups. The authors cite Maxwell (1992) when stating that SI is the best known and has the widest acceptance of any course-related learning program. A facilitator is defined as a facilitator as an undergraduate teaching assistant engaged in collaboratively teaching a college course alongside the instructor. While facilitators may perform some clerical duties, the focus of their work is to foster student learning. Common activities for facilitators include: through hosting smaller outside-of-class sessions make large classes more personable; turn lecture material by asking questions; share from a student's perspective another way to think about the lecture material; provide individual feedback to students; supervise small student work groups; provide role models of active learning; give encouragement; and change the classroom climate. Critical elements for a successful facilitator: be carefully selected by the instructor and perhaps a team of other student facilitators; training both before and during the academic term; evaluation by student and self-administered surveys.

Jenkins, A. (1994). Thirteen ways of doing fieldwork with large classes/more students. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 18(2), 143-155
This article describes thirteen strategies for geography instructors to consider to increase instructional effectiveness with large classes. The article is addressed to geography teachers and other field-based subjects in the United Kingdom. Suggestion number suggests finding ways to add new members to the academic staff. Supplemental Instruction (SI) is suggested as a way to involve students in helping to teach each other in large classes.

Kauffman, D., & Wolfe, R. F. (1990). Supplemental Instruction with mentoring support: A vehicle for faculty development. The Journal of Staff, Program, and Organization Development, 8(2), 101-104
The Supplemental Instruction (SI) program at Anne Arundel Community College (Arnold, MD) was modified to use faculty members as SI supervisors. While this was the initial focus for the faculty members, the mentor role evolved into an opportunity for them to observe colleagues and to grow as teachers. Faculty mentors were placed in classes outside their own discipline. The classroom instructor and faculty mentor would meet periodically to provide feedback to each other and discuss strategies to improve instructional effectiveness.

Koch, E., & Mallon, P. (1998). Evaluation of Supplemental Instruction: A performance assessment approach. South African Journal of Higher Education, 12(3), 173-178.
This article about the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) was originally presented at the South African Association for Academic Development Conference in Bloemfontein, Republic of South Africa. This research investigation assesses the performance of the SI program in terms of efficiency, quality, and effectiveness. Three concern areas were identified: voluntary attendance in SI sessions, unstructured approach in science courses, and ineffectiveness in increasing the pass rate of very under-prepared students. Key factors associated with positive program outcomes included: skill and ability of the SI leader with both facilitation but also knowledge/enthusiasm for the subject; involvement and support of the course lecturer; type of work covered in SI sessions; training both initially and ongoing of SI leaders; and more structure in SI sessions in science and other problem-solving areas.

Kochenour, E. O., Jolley, D. S., Kaup, J. G., Patrick, D. L., Roach, K. D., & Wenzler, L. A. (1997). Supplemental Instruction: An effective component of student affairs programming. Journal of College Student Development, 38(6), 577-586
The effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction (SI) was examined using 11,000 participants enrolled in eight courses at the University of Utah, a large research university. Corelational analyses and analysis of covariance support the hypothesis that SI is an effective program. The data was collected between Autumn 1992 and Spring 1994. Students on average attended about 3.7 times for each academic quarter. There was a positive correlation between higher grades and higher levels of attendance in SI: zero, 2.387; 1 to 2, 2.597; and 3 or more times, 2.848. Though students of various previous levels of academic achievement attended SI in similar patterns, research suggests that SI sessions had the most impact on students with lower previous grade point averages. Additional analysis examined the interaction of SI performance and class size, PGPA and other variables. An unusual finding was that the percent of SI attendance decreased with increasing class size.

Linan-Thompson, Sylvia, Hickman-Davis, Peggy (2002). Supplemental Reading Instruction for Students at Risk for Reading Disabilities: Improve Reading 30 Minutes at a Time. Learning Disabilities: Research & Practice v17 n4 p242-51

Lockie, N. M., & Van Lanen, R. J. (1991). Utilizing Supplemental Instruction to enhance student performance in a freshman level chemistry course. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science, 84(10), 10
This abstract describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) with entry-level chemistry students at Saint Xavier University (Chicago, IL).

Loviscek, A. L., & Cloutier, N. R. (1997). Supplemental Instruction and the enhancement of student performance in economics principles. American Economist, 41(2), 70-76
The authors presented an empirical evaluation of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in an economics principles course at the University of Wisconsin-Parkside. Using a two-equation model and student transcript data readily available to instructors and academic researchers, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of the SI program in economics principles. The analysis explicitly considers the confounding factor of self-selection in program participation. They found that ordinary least squares significantly underestimates the positive impact of SI. The results suggest that formal programs designed to increase the intensity of instruction can have a demonstrable payoff in the form of increased student learning.

Lundeberg, M. A. (1990). Supplemental Instruction in chemistry. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27(2), 145-155
This two-year study (148 students) at the University of Wisconsin (River Falls, WI) was designed to measure some effects of Supplemental Instruction in General Organic and Biological chemistry courses. Goals of the SI program included: develop conceptual understandings; articulate both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion; connect, relate, and integrate scientific information; develop confidence and ability in problem solving; and learn how to learn science. Some of the challenges with students are: motivating students to use problem-solving strategies; failure to accurately understand the problem before using a problem-solving strategy; attempt to use rote memory when solving; and failure to integrate new material with old. Quantitative studies suggested that SI contributed to higher mean final grades (2.80 vs. 2.26, p < .002) and lower rates of D, F and withdrawals for SI participants. Qualitative studies of SI participant comments suggested that SI was helpful in a variety of ways. In addition, SI leaders maintained journals. Six themes emerged from the journals: accommodating needs of diverse learners; understanding versus memorizing; depth versus breadth of discussion; relationships between ability, knowledge, and confidence; social relationships with students; and challenges to SI leaders' knowledge. The first three of these themes represent tensions that reoccurred several times over the academic term.

Lundeberg, M. A., & Moch, S. D. (1995). Influence of social interaction on cognition: Connected learning in science. Journal of Higher Education, 66(3), 312-335
This article explores the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) for increasing the academic success of women in science. "Connected knowing" -- a preferred learning environment for women that is a personal, cooperative approach to learning -- is thought by some to more naturally occur in SI sessions rather than the traditional pedagogical style used by most classroom professors. A research study of nursing students at the University of Wisconsin (River Falls) was conducted to test this idea. Qualitative research studies of the SI sessions suggested the following themes: spirit of cooperation, a circle of community, a shift of power to the SI participants, and risk-taking behavior (acknowledge uncertainty, experiment new ideas without fear of lower grades or punishment). Cognitive learning aspects included confirming the capacity for learning (encouragement), calibrated teaching (SI leader adjusted SI session agenda), and connected learning (placing abstract class lectures into context of personal lives). The article author provides several suggestions on how the classroom professor can introduce several of the SI session activities into their lecture sessions.

Martin, Deanna C., Blanc, Robert. (2001). Video-Based Supplemental Instruction (VSI). Journal of Developmental Education v24 n3 p12-19, 45.  Describes Video-Based Supplemental Instruction (VSI), developed at the University of Missouri (Kansas City), as an interactive processing and delivery system that helps high-risk students master rigorous course content. States that VSI shows improvements for students at many levels and that participants of VSI had significantly higher rates of A’s and B’s as course grades.

Martin, D. C., & Blanc, R. A. (1981). The learning center's role in retention: Integrating student support services with departmental instruction. Journal of Developmental and Remedial Education, 4(3), 2-4, 21-23
This article provides a historical background for the creation of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. Research studies of SI in a first-year American history course at UMKC during Fall 1980 suggest the following: SI participants earned a higher percent of A and B final course grades (54.1% vs. 38.9%); had a lower rate of D, F and withdrawal grades (21.7% vs. 42.4%); had a higher rate of reenrollment the following academic term (86.2% vs. 72.1%); and there was no statistically significant differences (e.g., prior academic achievement, standardized test scores) between SI and non-SI participants.

Martin, D. C., & Blanc, R. A. (1984). Improving reading comprehension through reciprocal questioning. Life Long Learning, 7(4), 29-31
"Reciprocal questioning" is a technique that promotes active learning. It helps students: a) become aware of the implicit as well as the explicit meaning of a reading passage; b) improve their analytic skills with respect to reading; c) improve their reasoning; and d) strengthen the questioning skills that are integral to comprehension. Reciprocal questioning is adapted from Manzo's "The ReQuest Procedure." Reciprocal questioning is a strategy used as appropriate with Supplemental Instruction or Video-based Supplemental Instruction sessions.

Martin, D. C., Blanc, R. A., & Arendale, D. (1994). Mentorship in the classroom: Making the implicit explicit. Teaching Excellence, 6(1), 1-2  Based upon experiences gained through the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program, the authors make a number of suggestions on how faculty members can use SI strategies in their classes. Some suggestions include: remind students of the "big picture" throughout the academic term of the most important concepts; refer to the syllabus during the term so that students will value and use it; share the thinking process that the professor uses to solve the problems with the students; administer a short examination with low grade impact early in the academic term to give students an opportunity to test their comprehension level and encourage them to modify study behaviors and perhaps seek academic support (e.g., SI); provide visual matrices during lectures to give models to students on how to organize the material; and make explicit what is expected on examinations.

Martin, D. C., & Gravina, M. (1990). Serving students where they fail: In class. Thresholds in Education, 16(3), 26, 28-30
This article provides a general overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model. Rather than focusing on "at-risk" students, the authors suggest that the emphasis should be placed on identifying historically difficult courses that create an environment that may be challenging for any student, despite previous academic success in other courses.

Martin, D.C. & Wilcox, K. Supplemental Instruction: Helping Students Help Each other. S. Brown (Series Ed.) & G. Wisker (Vol. Ed.). Enabling student learning: Systems and strategies (pp. 97-101), Staff and Educational Development Association. London: Kogan Page.

Maxwell, M. (1987). Improving student learning skills: An update. Journal of Educational Opportunity, 3(1), 1-9
In an overview of strategies for students to employ in developing their learning skills, the author provides a short overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. SI is an example of a program that rather than being student-oriented is instead content-oriented and/or process-oriented.

Maxwell, M. (1990). Does tutoring help? A look at the literature. Review of Research in Developmental Education, 7(4), 1-5
The author reviews the research on tutoring and examines the problems of doing research in this area. Research studies generally are unable to show that individual tutoring, by itself, leads to higher grades for developmental students. Some studies suggest tutoring is beneficial for high ability students. Supplemental Instruction is cited as an approach that research suggests does improve student academic achievement.

Maxwell, M. (1992). Cost effective alternatives to tutoring. Journal of Learning Improvement, 1(1), 1-4
The author reviews several academic support programs that serve as alternatives to traditional tutoring since there is very little evidence that generally peer tutoring directly affects the student's grades. The article provides an overview of Supplemental Instruction (SI) and adjunct courses. The article reports on a 1986 data study that examined the use of SI at a geographically diverse collection of 35 institutions that had offered SI to 4,276 students in 154 classes of a variety of academic disciplines. The data suggests SI has a positive impact upon raising final course grades (2.44 vs. 1.78) and reducing D, F and course withdrawal rates (20% vs. 35%) and higher graduation rates within six years for SI participants (30.6% vs. 18.2%). It is suggested that part of the reason for SI's positive impact is that there is immediate transfer of the study strategies to course content.

Maxwell, W. E. (1998). Supplemental Instruction, learning communities, and studying together. Community College Review, 26(2), 1
This study was designed to investigate the extent to which peer relations increased among students who participated in a modified program of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at a large community college in California. SI was modified by using instructors from the regular courses and, to a lesser extent, by financial aid counselors. Only financial aid recipients from 19 courses were invited to attend voluntary SI sessions. This allowed the study to more clearly study the impact of SI with low-income students. SI participants received a $100 grant if they attended weekly for the 16 week academic term (only 22% of SI participants earned the grant). Research suggests that the SI trainings promoted the growth of student study networks. At least 20% to 25% more of the SI students reported studying with other students and joining a study group outside of class.

McCarthy, A., Smuts, B., & Cosser, M. (1997). Assessing the effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction: A critique and a case study. Studies in Higher Education, 22(2), 221-231
This article argues that methods of assessing effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction (SI) have been inadequate. The authors suggest ways of isolating SI effects on student achievement, and recommends broadening research methods to include qualitative forms of assessment and use of multivariate linear regression analysis of quantitative data. The article concludes with a case study at the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa that suggests that SI is highly effective in raising academic achievement of students from both low and high previous levels of academic performance. It may be that the authors' concerns are based on an unclear understanding of the differences between the educational systems in South Africa and the U.S. and how student variables are used in data analysis. Also, a more complete review of current published SI research methodology would reveal that many of their suggestions regarding qualitative and quantitative research methodology have already been implemented.

McGlone, F. D. (1996). Student peer mentors: A teaching and learning strategy designed to promote cooperative approaches to learning and the development of lifelong learning skills. Queensland University of Technology Law Journal, 12, 201-220.
This paper describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at two classes in Australia's Queensland University of Technology Faculty of Law. SI was contextualized for use within the law curriculum as was described as a Student Peer Mentor (SPM) program. The program concentrated on improving qualitative learning outcomes for the students: promote student use of deep approaches to learning, develop generic lifelong learning skills, and increase student autonomy while encouraging them to work and learn cooperatively with their peers. Several unique features of SPM are identified: selected classes are not historically difficult, the class instructor and the SPM supervisor are the same person, and that the class has always provided a one hour staff-led small group seminar for each two hours of lecture. Other than those previously noted , many common features are shared by SI and SPM.

Murray, M. H. (1996, November). Alternative to lecturer-centred teaching enhances student learning and costs no more. Academic Staff Development Unit Update (Queensland University of Technology, Australia), 6-7.
This article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in the School of Civil Engineering, Queensland University of Technology (Australia). A basic engineering statics course in the first year has been transformed from a traditional lecturer-centered teaching mode into a student-centered resource-based model. Central to this transformation has been the integration of SI into the course. The SI sessions focus on interaction, discussion, and investigation rather than just simple problem solving. Before integration of SI in the course the total class (SI and non-SI students) mean final score was 46, in 1996 after the integration the score increased to 55. These results are based on the aggregated score from four quizzes during the semester, from a spaghetti bridge design/build/test project, and from a final end-of-semester exam. Based on standardized scores, the students in 1996 were less academically prepared than the ones in 1994 before SI was introduced. The SI participants received a higher mean final percentile grade in each year of the study (1995: 48 vs. 41; 1996: 56 vs. 42). There was a positive increase in final course score and higher levels of SI attendance. Students evaluated the SI session most useful of all course components ( SI sessions, 53%; lecture, 22%; text book, 16%; study guide, 13%; and tutorial, 9%). SI leaders mentioned the following benefits of the program for themselves: increased skill in group management; improved public speaking; gained skills in team building; increased group facilitation skills; improved personal time management; and increased interest from potential employers because of skills developed as a SI leader.

Murray, M. H. (1997, October). Better learning through curricular design at a reduced cost. Journal of the American Society of Engineering Education, 1-5.
This paper describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in the School of Civil Engineering, at Queensland University of Technology, Australia. After an initial discussion of the changes economic and educational trends in Australia, the report reviews the use of SI with students in a first year engineering course (Engineering Mechanics 1). It is an introduction to rigid body statics, equilibrium, moments, forces, and properties of plane areas. Using the Australian system of 7 point grading (1 = lowest, 7 = highest), the data suggests that the performance of SI participants was higher than non-SI participants (1995: 3.3 vs. 2.7; 1996: 4.4 vs. 2.8). Due to the use of SI, the course was restructured with a reduction of professor lecture time. This resulted in a lower student unit cost. Before SI's introduction, the student unit cost was more than $51 in 1994 (each week 2 hours of lecture and 1 hour of tutorials) and was reduced to less than $42 in 1997 (each week one hour of lecture, one hour of tutorial, one hour of SI, study guides, computer exercises, and E-mail).

Murray, M. H. (1997). Students, learning resources: An inseparable triad. Australian Journal of Engineering Education, 7(2), 129.
This paper describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at the School of Engineering, Queensland University of Technology (Australia) with two first year engineering courses. SI is compared with the traditional, lecture-centered model of learning. The introductory engineering courses were reorganized to integrate SI into the learning delivery system. Based on the seven point grading scale employed in Australian education (1 = low; 7 = high), the academic performance of students with SI was raised to 4.3 from the previous level of 3.0 before the introduction of the SI model.

O'Donnell, L. E. (1996). Inclusion for learning disabilities: Technology with learning variables research and Supplemental Instruction. International Journal of Special Education, 11(2), 27-32
Learning Variables Research and Supplemental Instruction (LVR/SI) provide an innovative approach to inclusion for intellectually normal and gifted students with learning disabilities. The original Supplemental Instruction (SI) model is generally used with traditional college undergraduate and graduate students. Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI) allows enrolled high school or college students view the videotaped lectures of a college level course (e.g., Western Civilization, General Chemistry) and allow them opportunity to control the flow of information (e.g., stop, repeat, discuss material before proceeding). SI, and especially VSI, can be very helpful for students with learning disabilities since they can be served inside the same content class rather than requiring an additional class for the students to attend to deal with their specialized learning needs. The LVR/SI approach refines either the SI or VSI model with individualized learning variables and computer technology for application in junior high, senior high, and higher education. Rather than using video tape with VSI, computer technology might be substituted. In addition, the SI leader or VSI facilitator is provided critical information about students with disabilities. This technology-based program allows individuals with learning disabilities to succeed academically in integrated, inclusive classrooms.

Ogden, P., Thompson, D., Russell, A., & Simons, C. (2003). Supplemental Instruction: Short- and long-term impact. Journal of Developmental Education, 26(3), pp. 2-8.

This article discussed a study that was performed to assess SI for short- and long-term impact on college academic performance and retention.

Ota, Kenji R. ; DuPaul, George J. (2002). Task Engagement and Mathematics Performance in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects of Supplemental Computer Instruction. School Psychology Quarterly v17 n3 p242-57. Study examines the effects of using software with a game format (as a supplement to teacher instruction) to improve math performance of fourth- to sixth-grade students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The hypothesis that math software with a game format would improve the academic performance and increase attention of all participants was partially supported. Implications for practice and further research are discussed.

Patt, G. R. (1996). The best way to learn is to teach. Biosource, 4(2)
This article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) as a form of peer-group instruction in biology at Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville. SI leaders report benefits for them since it helps them to prepare for comprehensive examinations such as MCAT or GRE as well as developing teaching skills. Data from Fall 1995 reports that those who attended SI session four or more times earned a mean final course grade of a low B, those who attended one to three times earned a C, and those who did not attend any SI sessions earned a high D grade.

Peled, O. N., & Kim, A. C. (1996). Evaluation of Supplemental Instruction at the college level. The Learning Assistance Review: The Journal of the Midwest College Learning Center Association, 1(2), 23-31. Available: ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 410 777.
This article analyzed the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model as it was used in 14 sections of the same high-risk biology course between Winter 1990 through Winter 1993 at National-Louis University (Chicago, IL) which is a multicultural, multiethnic university campus. Rather than reviewing a comparison of SI and non-SI attendees within the same class, the comparison was the academic performance of students in classes that had SI available and classes that did not. The researchers believed that this was another way to help control for the possible effects of student motivation. Examination grades indicated that the average grade of students in classes that had SI sessions was significantly higher than that of students in classes where SI sessions were not offered (scale 0 to 100: SI classes, 74.1 percentile vs. 67.6 non-SI classes, p < .05). Within classes that had SI sessions offered for students, SI participants earned a final course grade 12 percent higher than non-SI participants. In classes in which an SI leader was available, the number of students receiving grades below 60 percent decreased; whereas, the number of students receiving grades above 80 percent increased.

Price, M., & Rust, C. (1995). Laying firm foundations: The long-term benefits of Supplemental Instruction for students in large introductory courses. Innovations in Education and Training International, 32 (2), 123-130
This article contains the results of the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) to support student learning in business modules at Oxford Brookes University in the United Kingdom. The courses were selected due to their large size and the need to ensure mastery of course material that was prerequisite for the next course in the sequence. Quantitative and qualitative studies in 1993-94 suggest that SI was beneficial in increasing mean final course grades in the courses supported by SI (Introduction to Business: 61.4 percentile for SI participants vs. 56.2 percentile for non-SI; Managing Concepts: 60.7 vs. 54.6; Changing Environment of Business: 59.6 vs. 46.4). Further analysis showed that there was no correlation between entry qualifications and performance in the classes. In comparison with non-SI participants, former SI participants earned mean final course grades that were higher in subsequent courses in the business sequence that did not have SI support provided (54.9 percentile for former SI participants vs. 48.8 percentile for former non-SI). This finding was confirmed through interviews with students who reported using learning strategies from SI sessions in other classes. This suggests that SI provided transferable benefits for additional courses in the sequence.

Ramirez, G. M. (1997). Supplemental Instruction: The long-term impact. Journal of Developmental Education, 21(1), 2-4, 6, 8, 10, 28
This study addresses two questions about the impact of Supplemental Instruction (SI) on students in a large urban university (California State University, Long Beach): what academic performance benefit is realized beyond the target course supported by SI, and whether SI participation strengthens the persistence patterns of particular student populations. A unique feature of the SI program at Long Beach is that students enroll for a one-unit prebaccalureate class to gain admission to SI sessions. In this way SI becomes a part of the student's weekly schedule and student participation is higher than programs where SI attendance is voluntary. Participants from various student groups were tracked for a period of 8 semesters beginning in Fall 91, and their performance and retention patterns were compared with those of control peer groups of nonparticipants. SI was found to have essentially an immediate impact (grade range: 4.0 to 0.0; target course: 2.86 vs. 2.27 and semester GPA: 2.77 vs. 2.49) on traditional students; however, it has a substantial impact on both performance [2.52 vs. 1.82] and retention [70% vs. 51%] for special-admit students and a definite benefit for underrepresented/underprepared students. Low motivated students, as evidenced by their prior college performance, maintained consistent improvement after SI participation.

Reittinger, D. L., & Palmer, T. M. (1996). Lessons learned from using Supplemental Instruction: Adapting instructional models for practical application. Research and Teaching in Developmental Education, 13 (1), 57-68
This article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction to increase student academic achievement. A research study suggests that SI contributed to higher mean final course grades in an introductory psychology course (Psychology 110) over five semesters in seven sections. Several lessons learned included: SI provides professional development opportunities for the SI leader; SI attend may be negatively affected if the SI leader quits attending the class lecture sessions; students will not attend SI if the scheduled times are inconvenient; and requiring students to attend 90 percent of the SI sessions to receive extra academic credit from the course instructor results in less than ten percent of the students choosing to attend at that level.

Rye, P. D., & Wallace, J. (1994, March). Helping students to learn: Supplemental Instruction. Student British Medical Journal, 2, 79-80  This short article provides an overview of Supplemental Instruction and its use with medical students.

Rye, P. D., & Wallace, J. (1994). Supplemental Instruction: A peer-group learning program for medical undergraduates. Nordisk Medicin, 109(11), 307
This article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) with Norwegian undergraduate medical students. Various benefits of SI are described for the session participants: study strategies, life-long learning skills, and working in learning teams with other students.

Rye, P. D., Wallace, J., & Bidgood, P. (1993). Instructions in learning skills: An integrated approach. Medical Education, 27 (6), 470-473
The transition from school to university education and a medical school environment can be difficult for even the very best students. The article suggests that Supplemental Instruction (SI) would be useful to improvement academic performance of these students. Research studies from Kingston University (Surrey, England) in Computer Science, Electronics and Engineering are cited to suggest the Supplemental Instruction would also be helpful for medical students (62.3 percentile vs. 54.2 percentile for non-SI participants).

Saunders, D. (1992). Peer tutoring in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 17(2), 211-218
This article describes the development of peer tutoring programs at many institutions in the United Kingdom. Supplemental Instruction (SI) is one of the programs that is being implemented in higher education institutions. Lecturers are being asked to experiment with a greater variety of teaching and learning strategies which complement the lecture tradition. The use of SI at Kingston Polytechnic is mentioned. The benefits of tutoring programs for the tutors are described.

Saunders, D., & Gibbon, M. (1998). Peer tutoring and peer-assisted student support: Five models within a new university. Mentoring and Tutoring, 5(3), 3-13
This article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) -- called Peer Assisted Student Support (PASS) by the local institution -- in the Business School at the University of Glamorgan in Glamorgan, Wales, United Kingdom. SI has been offered in the School of Applied Sciences since 1991. It is called PASS within the Business School. Most of the PASS group facilitators are volunteers and have previously been participants in groups when they were first year students. Positive reports from facilitators included: satisfaction gained from being able to positively help their peers, improved self-confidence, better communication and oral presentation skills as a result of running sessions, and being able to strengthen their job resume. The author identified several challenges with the PASS scheme: student attendance was erratic due to perceived time conflicts of students; difficulty to maintain the voluntary program as committed PASS facilitators graduated and new leaders needed to be recruited to take over responsibilities.

Sawyer, S. J., Sylvestre, P. B., Girard, R. A., & Snow, M. H. (1996). Effects of Supplemental Instruction on mean test scores and failure rates in medical school courses. Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 71(12), 1357-1359. Correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed to Dr. Snow, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Dean's Office, 1142 Medical Sciences Center, 1300 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706-1532.
The purpose of the research study was to determine whether Supplemental Instruction (SI) offered to first-year medical students reduces the number of examination failures. The SI program -- locally called the Medical Scholars Program (MSP) -- was offered at not cost to all first-year students at the University of Southern California School of Medicine in 1994-95. SI sessions were offered in biochemistry, gross anatomy, microanatomy, and physiology. Mean test scores and failure rates for students considered academically at risk and those not at risk were compared between the class entering in 1994 and the classes matriculating during the preceding three years. Since 85% of students elected to participate in the SI program, it was necessary to compare performance to previous academic terms rather than the non-SI group which was so small as to make same academic term comparisons difficult. At-risk students were defined as those with a total Medical College Admission Test score below 26 and a science grade-point average below 3.0. Comparisons were performed using two-tailed t-tests and chi-square tests. Statistically significant increases in mean test scores were achieved on most examinations by the class exposed to SI. Failure rates for at-risk students decreased by 46% during the year the SI program was offered. The authors listed other outcomes from the SI program: strengthened study strategies that could be used in other courses; students identified gaps in his or her knowledge in advance of examinations; enhanced cooperative rather than competitive interaction with colleagues; hastened development of class camaraderie by broadening the student's circle of friends since they were randomly assigned to the SI groups; and increased student morale and self-esteem since the students experienced less academic failure. SI leaders reported the following benefits of the SI program for themselves: reviewed first-year material in the SI courses which helped them prepare for both the second-year courses and for Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination.

Schaefer, S., & Hopper, J. (1991). Successful funding and implementation of a biology adjunct. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 24(1), 55-62
This article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in an introductory course in biology -- BIO 90, Diversity of Life -- at the University of California, Irvine. SI is offered as a non-credit class that accompanies a specific course. The authors describe the process for gaining support to provide the program: contact with counselors, administrators, and faculty; identified the historically difficult course that needed assistance; wrote a grant proposal; and conducted a pilot test of SI with a limited number of students. Results of the program included: positive relationship between attendance in SI and final course grade; statistically significant positive change (p < .01) from pre- to post-test performance on the Nelson Denny Reading Comprehension Subtest; post-tests in writing showed that students were more likely to answer essay questions with correct answers in complete sentences; and for all the items on the self-assessment of reading, writing, and thinking skills there was a positive, and statistically significant change.

Schwartz, E. B. (1997, December). Program helps students make the grade. Key Magazine,
This short article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. The author is the Chancellor the University of Missouri-Kansas City, home of the SI program.

Schwartz, M. D. (1992). Study sessions and higher grades: Questioning the causal link. College Student Journal, 26(3), 292-299
This article contains a data study of the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in a large sociology course at Ohio University (Athens, OH). While the study did not reveal statistical significance between SI attendance and final course grade, the students who attended the SI sessions tended to have fewer unexcused absences in the course. In turn, a higher number of unexcused absences was associated with lower course grades.

Shaya, S. B., Petty, H. R., & Petty, L. I. (1993). A case study of Supplemental Instruction in biology focused on at-risk students. BioScience, 43(10), 709-711
The effects of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in Basic Biology I course at Wayne State University (MI) is examined by studying the academic performance of academically at-risk students (low high school grade-point average, low ACT standardized test scores). The SI sessions were open to all students in the course. About 25 percent of the traditional admit students and 40 percent of the at-risk students voluntarily participated in SI sessions during the academic term. The data suggests that SI contributed to higher mean final course grades for SI participants (2.9) vs. nonparticipants (2.4). A separate analysis was conducted to compare the academic performance of at-risk students. At-risk SI participants received higher mean final course grades (2.65 vs. 1.31) and had a higher course completion rate (90 percent vs. 32 percent). To attempt to control for student motivation level, an analysis was conducted of high school grade point averages and ACT scores for SI and non-SI participants among the at-risk students. No significant differences were found. A second analysis for student motivation considered intrasemester SI entry. At-risk students who began to attend SI later in the academic term earned higher mean final course grades than at-risk students who chose not to attend SI. The data suggests that SI participation contributed to the majority of the variance concerning higher mean final course grades.

Simpson, M. L., Hynd, C. R., Nist, S. L., & Burrell, K. I. (1997). College academic assistance programs and practices. Educational Psychology Review, 9(1), 39-87. Correspondence should be directed to Michelle L. Simpson, Division of Academic Assistance, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
This comprehensive article provides an overview to academic assistance for college level learning tasks. After examining four critical issues confronting all academic assistance programs (Should generic or content-specific skills be taught? How can transfer be promoted? What is the role of task and context? What is the role of motivation in self-regulated learning?), the authors examined the goals, assessment procedures, salient features, and program evaluation methods of four prevalent program models: learning to learn course, Supplemental Instruction (SI), required programs for underprepared students, and integrated reading/writing courses. After providing an overview of the SI model, the authors point out that embedded strategy instruction (modeling of study strategies) is a major feature that distinguishes it from many other systems since they employ a direct instructional procedure to teach study skills. The authors concluded by outlining suggestions for future research (e.g., include both descriptive and experimental paradigms, investigate long-term effects, collect both product and process data, seek linkages across disciplines) and by listing specific questions that college students need to ask about the programs at their institutions.

Sommerfeld, M. (1995). Who's responsible? Taking sides on remedial classes. Education Week, 14(29), 1, 14
This article discusses alternatives to traditional remedial and developmental education programs. Included in the article is a short interview with David Arendale concerning the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) and Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI). One of the difficulties for first-time students is that they concentrate on the wrong things as they prepare for their first examinations.

Stansbury, Sydney. (2001). Accelerated Learning Groups Enhance Supplemental Instruction for At-Risk Students. Journal of Developmental Education v24 n3 p20-28, 40.  Reports that, based on a pilot study at the University of Missouri (Kansas City), high-risk students are more likely to participate in supplemental instruction sessions (SI) if they attend an accelerated learning group (ALG)/SI combination instead of only SI. Adds that those who attended the combination ALG/SI sessions instead of SI had higher final grades.

Staff writer. (1996). Georgia's HOPE: A system in transition. Black Issues in Higher Education, 13(15), 10-13, 16
This article describes Georgia's HOPE (Helping Outstanding Pupils Educationally) program to improve academic success of its college students. Dr. Stephen Portch serves as Chancellor of the University of Georgia System and Atty. Juanita Baranco is Regent with the University of Georgia System. Both are interviewed in this article. Portch suggests that Supplemental Instruction (SI), with its focus on at-risk courses rather than at-risk students, allows student to earn higher grades without labeling them in the process or continuing the previous system of remedial education that retaught material from high school.

Staff writer. (1997). Supplemental Instruction and minority students. Journal of Developmental Education, 20(3), 38
This article describes a national research study of Supplemental Instruction (SI) with students of color. Students of color participated in SI at rates equal or exceeding those for White students (White, 33.3%; African-American, 42.0%; Hispanic-American, 50.9%; Asian-American, 33.3%; and Native-American, 42.9%). Students of color who participated in SI earned higher mean final course grades (2.02 vs. 1.55) and lower rates of D, F and withdrawal rates ( 36% vs. 43%) than similar students who did not.

Stephens, J. E. (1995). Supplemental Instruction in developmental mathematics: Inquiring minds want to know. Journal of Developmental Education, 19(2), 38
Based on the author's dissertation research concerning Supplemental Instruction (SI), the following observations concerning SI in math were made: (1) the developmental math student participants in SI in relationship to their perceived level of difficulty of the course instructor; (2) SI program success is dependent upon the level that students are active in SI sessions; (3) when the variable of repetition is applied to SI and non-SI participant, higher academic success is associated with first-time course students; (4) when the variable of gender is applied to SI and non-SI participant when there has been a high level of vocalization during SI sessions, females tend to increase more highly in academic terms than males; (5) when the variable of gender is applied to SI and non-SI participant when there has been a low level of vocalization during SI sessions, academic achievement will be fairly equal among the genders.

Timmermans, S. R., & Heerspink, J. B. (1996). Intensive developmental instruction in a pre-college summer program. The Learning Assistance Review: The Journal of the Midwest College Learning Center Association, 1(2), 32-44
This article describes a modification of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model at Calvin College (Grand Rapids, MI) to take into account the cognitive and developmental factors of high school students. This instructional component was placed in a pre-college summer program called Intensive Developmental Instruction (IDI). Unique features of IDI include: high school students are placed in college-level classes beyond their current level of academic ability; the SI leader is a certified K-12 teacher from outside the course area who takes the class along with the high school students; and explicit instruction is provided by the IDI leader in learning strategies. A comparison was made between the IDI high school students and the college students in the same classes who did not participate in IDI. It was assumed that the college students were stronger academically than the high school students since their mean ACT score was higher (24 vs. 20 for IDI students). IDI students received a grade of C or higher 88.7 percent of time compared with 80.6 percent for the college students. Results from the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory suggest that their involvement in IDI improved their use of learning strategies.

Topping, K. J. (1996). The effectiveness of peer tutoring in further and higher education: A typology and review of the literature. Higher Education, 32(3), 321-345
The increasing use of peer tutoring in British higher education necessitates a clear definition and typology. Through an extensive review of the literature, the author discusses peer tutoring in general with a short review of and the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. Research studies from both the U.S. and U.K. suggest that participation in SI is positively correlated with higher mean final course grades. Other UK studies suggested improved communication skills and deeper understanding of the curriculum occurred for SI participants and higher grades for the SI leaders themselves.

Van Lanen, R. J., & Lockie, N. M. (1997). Using Supplemental Instruction to assist nursing student in chemistry: A mentoring program's support network protects high-risk students at Saint Xavier University. Journal of College Science Teaching, 26(6), 419-423
This article discusses the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) with nursing students in Principles of Organic and Biochemistry (Chemistry 108) at Saint Xavier University (IL). Chemistry 108 is the second class in a two-semester introductory chemistry course designed for freshman nursing students. After a basic overview of the SI model, the article discusses a research study to examine the effectiveness of the SI program. The Chemistry 108 class was composed mainly of women (94.5%), transfer students (75.8%), and nursing majors (95.1%). It was equally distributed between students above and below age 23. In this study SI participants were defined as students who attended six or more times. The SI group received a higher mean final course grade (2.52 vs. 2.21) and a lower rate of D, F and course withdrawals (14.3% vs. 29.1%). The authors postulate that due to the variety and complexity of skills needed to understand chemistry -- complex content mastery, language, and problem solving -- higher levels of SI attendance are needed to show more consistent positive academic results. Three themes emerged from SI participants concerning why they felt SI was helpful: (1) working out problems on the black board; (2) opportunity to share information; and (3) chance to help each other.

Visor, J. N., Johnson, J. J., & Cole, L. N. (1992). The relationship of Supplemental Instruction to affect. Journal of Developmental Education, 16(2), 12-14, 16-18  This Supplemental Instruction study that examined college students enrolled in an introductory psychology course conducted at Illinois State University (Normal, IL) addressed the following questions: a) Are students who elect to participate in SI affectively different from those who choose not to do so? b) does SI affect a positive change in noncognitive factors for participants? The noncognitive factors examined were locus of control, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Results suggested that those who participated regularly in SI were affectively different from those who participated only occasionally or not at all. SI participants tended to have a higher internal locus of control and higher self-esteem than others. The researchers suggested that this may have been due to the manner in which the SI program was promoted to students. Self-efficacy actually decreased for the more frequent SI participants. The researchers suggested that these students may have developed a more accurate understanding of their strengths and weaknesses while the others were "blissfully ignorant of what it takes to succeed." Increased sensitivity by the SI leader may be needed to effectively meet the needs of "at-risk" students (external locus of control, low self-efficacy, and low self-esteem). The authors suggest additional research is needed regarding non-cognitive variables.

Wallace, J. (1992). Students helping students to learn. The New Academic, 1(2), 8-9  This article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at Kingston University in London, England. In addition to reports of improved academic performance by SI participants, interviews with SI leaders suggest they had the following results: higher final course grades in other subjects, increased leadership skills, higher confidence levels, and increased contact with faculty members.

Wallace, J. (1995). Supplemental Instruction: Students helping each other with their learning. UCoSDA Briefing Papers, 20, 1-4. Available: UCoSDA, Level Six, University House, Sheffield, England S10 2TN.
This paper provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model as it is implemented in the United Kingdom. In addition to the traditional purposes of the SI program, there are two additional emphasis areas for the SI program. First, SI leaders are expected to feed back to the course professor students comments (e.g., relevance of instructional pace, understanding of the lecture material, relevance of support materials such as handouts). SI leaders receive special training to delicately share this information with the faculty members. The second emphasis area is on staff and educational development. Faculty members are encouraged to make adjustments of their teaching behaviors to accommodate the needs of the students.

Wang, D. (2005). Students' Learning and Locus of Control in Web-Supplemental Instruction. Innovative Higher Education, 30,(1), 67-82.

Warren, B. Z., & Tonsetic, R. (1997). Supporting large classes with Supplemental Instruction (SI). Journal of Staff, Program, and Organization Development, 15(2), 47-54
This paper discusses the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at the University of Central Florida (27,000 students) as one component in dealing with helping faculty and students deal with large classes. In Spring 1997 39 classes had an enrollment of 200 or more students. During Fall 1996 SI was provided for four large class sections including a chemistry course for non-science majors. SI participants earned a higher mean final course grade (3.39 vs. 1.72). When adjusted for differences in SAT scores, the SI group still received higher grades (2.54 vs. 1.71). The percent of A and B final course grades was higher for the SI group (47% vs. 20%) as well as lower rates of D, F or course withdrawals (18% vs. 56%). Positive results were also reported for the SI in general biology and American national government. There were no significant differences in the calculus course. While there was high satisfaction with the SI participants, the grade differences were not significant. The authors suggest that the SI sessions in math need modification for more effective use.

Webster, T., & Dee, K. C. (1998). Supplemental Instruction integrated into an introductory engineering course. Journal of Engineering Education, 87(4), 377-383
This article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) during Fall 1996 in Introduction to Engineering Analysis at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, NY). The course is generally taken in the first semester of the freshman year and covers vector mechanics (statics), linear algebra, and computer-based matrix methods for solving engineering problems. Of the students in the class, 23 percent participated in SI sessions. Students who participated in SI earned higher mean final course grades (3.13 vs. 2.67, p < .025), higher rate of A & B final course grades (77% vs. 62%, p < .01) and received a lower rate of D, F or withdrawals (0% vs. 18%, p < .01). There was a positive correlation between higher levels of SI attendance and higher final course grades. All students who attended at least four SI sessions throughout the semester received a final course grade of A or B. A subpopulation of students who were designated as "at-risk" or "high risk" were studied. SI participants earned higher grades their counterparts who did not attend SI sessions (At-risk: 2.60 vs. 2.18; High-risk: 2.38 vs. 1.58; p < .01). The researchers reported that unfortunately half of these students did not participate in any SI sessions. Surveys of students suggested the following improvements for the SI program: hold more sessions during the academic term to help reduce SI session size (mean size = 13); hold SI sessions longer than one hour to provide sufficient time to deal with material; and consider more than one SI leader to allow smaller SI session size. SI leaders provided feedback to the course instructor concerning the comprehension level of students concerning the course material. Instructors used the feedback to modify future course lectures. SI leaders the following benefits of the SI program for themselves: deeper understanding of course material, excelled in other courses since they were reviewing basic concepts in the SI course, developed communication skills, improved teaching skills, and enhanced leadership skills.

Webster, T., & Hooper, L. (1998). Supplemental Instruction for introductory chemistry courses: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Chemical Education, 75(3), 328-331. Available: Thomas Webster, The Advising and Learning Assistance Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180.
This article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) between Spring 1995 and Fall 1995 at the University of Pittsburgh (PA) for two semesters in General Chemistry I and for one semester in Organic Chemistry I. After a review of the literature concerning academic needs in science, the researchers describe the results of their study. The percentage of students that participated in SI ranged from 37 to 45 percent. Students uniformly rated the SI sessions very helpful (0 to 5 point scale: ranged from 4.1 to 4.5). The results uniformly favored the SI participants: Gen Chem S95: A&B grades, 39% vs. 30%; D,F&W, 10% vs. 34%; mean final grade, 2.34 vs. 1.95. Gen Chem F95: A&B grades, 43% vs. 33%; D,F&W, 15% vs. 31%; mean final grade, 2.46 vs. 2.19. Org Chem F95: A&B grades, 54% vs. 33%; D, F&W, 6% vs. 26%; mean final grade, 2.59 vs. 2.17. The researchers suggested that SI has helpful in chemistry since it helped in the following areas: mathematics, problem solving, conceptualization, theoretical, and familiarization with the chemical language.

White, B. (1996). The student peer mentor program in its trial year: A mentor's perspective. Queensland University of Technology Law Journal, 12(1), 221-228. 
In 1994 the Student Peer Mentor program was piloted in the Bachelor of Laws program of study (two individual classes: Torts and Law of Contract) at Queensland University of Technology in Australia. The program was based upon Supplemental Instruction (SI). This article describes the program from the perspective of one of the student mentors. Strengths of the program included: less private time needed to study; non-threatening environment; identified academic skills needed for success; and expanded social circles. Benefits of the program for the mentors included: improved interpersonal communication skills; increased content comprehension; provided personal satisfaction of helping others; and improved confidence in leadership and group situations.

Wilcox, F. K. (1999). Killer course survival: Supplemental Instruction. The College Parent Advisor, 3(1), 2-3
This article provides a general overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model.

Wilcox, F. K., & Koehler, C. (1996). Supplemental Instruction: Critical thinking and academic assistance. Metropolitan Universities: An International Forum, 6(4), 87-99   This article provides a basic overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) including data from the University of Missouri-Kansas City. A UMKC study reviewed data from a geographically and institutionally diverse group of 146 institutions that used SI in 2,875 courses of diverse academic areas with an enrollment of 298,629 students. The data suggests that SI participants earned higher mean final course grades (2.30 vs. 1.85); higher percent of A and B final course grades (47.5% vs. 35.8%) and a lower rate of D, F and course withdrawals (23.7% vs. 38.0-%). A 1989 study at UMKC found that SI participants reenrolled the following semester at a higher rate than non-SI participants (90.0% vs. 81.5%). A study of SI and non-SI participants during their first academic term at UMKC in Fall 1983 found that by Fall 1989 the SI participants had graduated at a higher rate (30.6% vs. 18.2%). A comparison is made between the traditional paradigm of learning that is the current pedagogy of most classroom instructors and the new reflective learning paradigm. SI sessions help students to use both paradigms to maximize learning and academic achievement.

Wittig, G., North, S., & Thomerson, J. E. (1996). Supplemental Instruction improves student retention and performance in biology. Transactions, 89(65), 79
This article reports the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in a biology course at Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville. Success in Biology 120, which introduces into the majors core, is a strong predictor of academic survival. Because 50 percent of students earned D, E and withdrawal grades, SI was introduced. Undergraduate SI leaders were placed in both lectures and laboratories, and they offered weekly, out-of-class SI sessions. Of 171 Fall 1995 and 88 Spring 1996 students, 56 and 67 percent respectively participated in SI. Students attending from 4 up to 37 sessions per semester averaged a full grade point better course grades than non-SI students and hardly any (4 and 0 respectively) D, E, and withdrawal grades. Differences were significant at the 1 and 5 percent level respectively.

Wolfe, R. F. (1987, Spring). The Supplemental Instruction program: Developing learning and thinking skills across the curriculum. Issues in College Learning Centers, 5, 5-12  The author describes implementation of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) at Anne Arundel Community College in Arnold, Maryland. A Fall 1986 research study concerning the impact of the SI program with a History 211 course suggested that SI participation contributed to higher final course grades (2.5 vs. 1.6) and lower rates of D, F and withdrawal (16% vs. 55%) even though the SI participants had a lower mean SAT score (370 vs. 430). Another indication of the influence of the SI program was a shift of the overall rate of D, F and course withdrawals from 45 percent down to 33 percent for the History 211 course. Some professors at the college reported using the SI program for faculty development in the following ways: sometimes the course instructor incorporated SI leader developed materials initially used during SI sessions; used the SI leader as a feedback forum for evaluating the comprehension level of students of key concepts.

Wolfe, R. F. (1987). The Supplemental Instruction program: Developing learning and thinking skills. Journal of Reading, 31(3), 228-232
The author describes implementation of the Supplemental Instruction at Anne Arundel Community College in Arnold, Maryland. A Fall 1986 research study concerning the impact of the SI program with a History 211 course suggested that SI participation contributed to higher final course grades (2.5 vs. 1.6) and lower rates of D, F and withdrawal (16% vs. 55%) even though the SI participants had a lower mean SAT score. SI participants self-reported high satisfaction with their experience in the SI program (4.5 on a 5 point scale). Some professors at the college reported using the SI program for faculty development in the following ways: sometimes the course instructor incorporated SI leader developed materials initially used during SI sessions; used the SI leader as a feedback forum for evaluating the comprehension level of students of key concepts.

Wolfe, R. F. (1987). Writing across the curriculum through Supplemental Instruction. Maryland English Journal, 21(2), 43-48
At Anne Arundel Community College (Arnold, MD), the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program is also used to improve students' writing skills. In SI sessions for a history class during Fall 1986 additional activities were directed to developing writing skills. Research suggests that SI participants demonstrated improved performance in written essay examinations. The activity had four steps: 1) overview all material from notes and text that could be used to answer the question; 2) organize the information; 3) develop a summary statement; and 4) develop an outline for the answer. SI participants earned a higher mean final course grade (2.5 vs. 1.6) and a lower rate of D, F and course withdrawals (16% vs. 55%).

Wolfe, R. F. (1988). A model retention program for the community college. Maryland Association for Higher Education Journal, 11, 18-20
This article describes the implementation of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program at Anne Arundel Community College (Arnold, MD). In addition to a descriptive overview of the SI program, data from a 1987 research study suggests that SI participants received higher mean final course grades (2.6 vs. 1.9) and lower rates of D, F and withdrawals (24% vs. 44%). Using the same data set, when developmental education students and students of color were studied regarding the impact of SI attendance, the results were more pronounced than when examining the entire class of students. SI participants earned higher mean final course grades (3.1 vs. 1.8).

Wolfe, R. F. (1990). Professional development through peer interaction. The Journal of Professional Studies, 14(1), 50-57
The Supplemental Instruction (SI) program at Anne Arundel Community College (Arnold, MD) was modified to use faculty members as SI supervisors. While this was the initial focus for the faculty members, the mentor role evolved into an opportunity for them to observe colleagues and to grow as teachers. Mentors are placed in classes outside their own discipline. Faculty mentors were placed in classes outside their own discipline. The classroom instructor and faculty mentor would meet periodically to provide feedback to each other and discuss strategies to improve instructional effectiveness. Faculty mentor roles included: 1) attending a three-day pre-semester training seminar (e.g., examined learning strategies, examined their own teaching and learning styles, learned questioning techniques, and practiced group management); 2) attending all classes and study sessions as a student in the target class for the first four weeks of the semester; 3) working with student leaders to prepare strategies for the study session; 4) working with student leaders to create supplemental materials such as graphic representation of abstract concepts; 5) formally evaluating student leaders during the second half of the semester, and 6) keeping a daily journal to record their observations and reflections about classes and SI sessions.

Wright, Gary L.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Lamb, Charles E. (2002). Developmental Mathematics Education and Supplemental Instruction: Pondering the Potential. Journal of Developmental Education v26 n1 p30-35. Discusses a study concerning the effective use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in 90 developmental mathematics courses at a southern state university in spring, summer, and fall 2000. Reports that, based on student outcomes, SI may have made a positive difference in performance and retention rates for the students.

 





 

Section Four: Audio and Videotapes



 

Briere, P., Congos, D. H., & Wallace, J. (1995). Promoting the Supplemental Instruction program. [Videotape]. D. Arendale (Producer) Kansas City, MO: The University of Missouri-Kansas City.
This videotape discusses various aspects of promoting the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. Discussion participants reviewed a variety of topics including recruiting SI leaders, promoting attendance among students, and gaining support from faculty and administrators. The panelists are campus SI supervisors as well as Certified Trainers with the SI program. Wallace is the Certified Trainer from the United Kingdom.

Briere, P., Garland, M., Visor, J. N., & Browning, S. (1995). The use of Supplemental Instruction with target populations. [Videotape]. D. Arendale (Producer) Kansas City, MO: The University of Missouri-Kansas City.
This videotape records a panel discussion concerning the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) with targeted subpopulations of students. Generally the SI program is provided for all students on campus. Due to specific needs and restricted funds, the SI program may be targeted with success for any of the following groups: students on academic probation; academically underprepared students; student-athletes; Upward Bound high school students; international students; and programs that limit grant funds to eligible populations (e.g., Carl Perkins Vocational, TRIO programs). The panelists discuss how to market to these student groups and conduct appropriate evaluation systems. The panelists are campus SI supervisors as well as Certified Trainers with the SI program.

Browning, S., Minkoff, D., Wallace, J., & Zerger, S. (1995). The use of Supplemental Instruction for faculty and SI leader development. [Videotape]. D. Arendale (Producer) Kansas City, MO: The University of Missouri-Kansas City.
This videotape records a panel discussion on the uses of Supplemental Instruction (SI) for both faculty and SI leader professional development. Topics covered included: faculty development in the United Kingdom and the U.S.; SI leaders serving as partners with faculty members to improve classroom learning; using SI as an anonymous feedback mechanism for faculty members; and developing a faculty focus on increased student learning. The panelists are campus SI supervisors with the SI program. Wallace is Certified Trainer for the United Kingdom with Minkoff and Zerger trainers for the U.S.

Burmeister, S. L., McLaren, A., & Zerger, S. (1995). Supplemental Instruction in the content areas: English, Humanities, and Mathematics. [Videotape]. D. Arendale (Producer) Kansas City, MO: The University of Missouri-Kansas City.
This videotape records a panel discussion on the subtle differences and needs for Supplemental Instruction in different content areas. Topics included: differences in problem-based and vocabulary-based curriculums; use of SI in laboratory situations; strategies for mastering vocabulary; relationships between lectures and textbooks in different content areas; and the degree to which strategies for curriculums overlap with each other. The panelists are all campus SI supervisors as well as Certified Trainers with the SI program.

Congos, D. H., McLaren, A., & Visor, J. N. (1995). Clinical supervision of Supplemental Instruction sessions. [Videotape]. D. Arendale (Producer) Kansas City, MO: The University of Missouri-Kansas City.
This videotape records a discussion by a panel regarding various issues related to supervision of the Supplemental Instruction program: role of the Assistant SI Supervisor; components of a clinical supervision protocol; the limit of capacity for supervision; mentoring and evaluation in clinical supervisory debriefing sessions; and protocol for debriefing SI sessions. The panelists are campus SI supervisors as well as Certified Trainers with the SI program.

Garland, M., & Anderson, J. (1985). Supplemental Instruction: The review session. [Videotape]. M. Garland (Producer) Kansas City, MO: The University of Missouri-Kansas City.
This videotape provides a simulation of an Supplemental Instruction (SI) session in an economics class. A narrator guides the viewer regarding the activities of the SI leader and provides a debriefing of the SI session.

Garland, M., & Gordy, K. (1989, May 11). National teleconference on Supplemental Instruction. [Videotape]. J. Connett, & Confer B J (Producers) Kansas City, MO: United States Department of Education, National Diffusion Network.
This live national teleconference featured an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model. Also included were interviews with SI leaders and faculty members who had SI attached to their classes. A live call-in portion of the teleconference permitted members of a national audience to call in with questions.

Garland, M., & Jamerson, L. (1988). Supplemental Instruction: A validated model of student academic support [Audio cassette]. Glendale, CA: Mobiltape Co. Available: Interlibrary loan from the Community College of Vermont.
Taped at the 1988 National Conference on Higher Education in Washington, D.C., two experts from the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program at the University of Missouri-Kansas City discuss their experience with SI, a nonremedial model of student academic assistance that targets historically-difficult courses rather than high-risk students. They provide an overview of the model and its use with a variety of student subpopulations.

Garland, M., Minkoff, D., & Zerger, S. (1995). The use of Supplemental Instruction in small classes and small colleges. [Videotape]. D. Arendale (Producer) Kansas City, MO: The University of Missouri-Kansas City.
This videotape records a panel discussion regarding the advantages and challenges of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in small classes and colleges. Some of the issues included: locating SI leaders; cost effectiveness in small classes; networking with faculty members; and the use of SI in quarter and semester terms. The panelists are campus SI supervisors as well as Certified Trainers with the SI program.

Kenney, P. A. (1988). Supplemental Instruction sessions in math courses. [Videotape]. M. Garland (Producer) Kansas City, MO: University of Missouri-Kansas City.
This video tape features Dr. Patricia Kenney discussing ways in which Supplemental Instruction (SI) in mathematics courses differ from those in other content areas. Kenney served as a math SI leader during her doctoral research on the effectiveness of SI in math sessions at the University of Texas at Austin.

Martin, D. C. (1994). Video-based Supplemental Instruction panel discussion. [Videotape]. K. Blair (Producer) Kansas City, MO: The University of Missouri-Kansas City.
This videotape panel discussion provides an overview of the Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI) program. Moderated by the creator of SI and VSI,
Deanna Martin, the panel was composed of an administrator, faculty member who placed his course on video, former VSI student, and academic advisor who places students in VSI.

Miner, J. (1991, October 16). Politics of remediation. [Videotape]. Los Angeles, CA: DeAnza College.
This video teleconference was concerned with a review of successful practices for serving academically underprepared students. Featured panelists included John Roueche and Lee Noel. An eight minute segment featured an interview with
Deanna Martin, creator of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model. Martin provided an overview of the SI program and discussed how the program can be used to serve both the best and least prepared students.

Overly, C. (1995). Supplemental Instruction overview. [Videotape]. University of Western Michigan (Kalamazoo, MI): The University of Missouri-Kansas City.
This ten minute videotape provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. It includes brief interviews with SI leaders, SI supervisors and faculty members.

University of Missouri-Kansas City. (1999). Supplemental Instruction: Empowering student learning. [Videotape]. K. Patterson, & K. Wilcox (Producers) Kansas City, MO: The University of Missouri-Kansas City.
This videotape provides an overview of Supplemental Instruction (SI) through short interviews with SI leaders, SI participants, campus administrators, and
Deanna Martin, creator of the SI model.

Wallace, J. (1996). Supplemental Instruction: A profile of the scheme. [Videotape]. G. Mair (Producer) Glasgow, Scotland: Glasgow Caledonia University.
This videotape provides an overview of the implementation of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in the United Kingdom. Jenni Wallace, Certified Trainer for the United Kingdom, provides a historic perspective of SI's use in the United Kingdom. Following is an interview with two SI leaders (Paul Irwin and Mel Dobie) concerning benefits of the SI program to the SI leaders: increased leadership skills, improved use of study strategies, higher confidence level, and increased content knowledge.

Wallace, J. (1996). Supplemental Instruction: The challenging way forward. [Videotape]. G. Mair (Producer) Glasgow, Scotland: Glasgow Caledonia University.
This videotape provides an overview of the implementation of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in the United Kingdom. It contains an interview with two SI leaders (Paul Irwin and Mel Dobie) concerning benefits of the SI program to the SI leaders: increased leadership skills, improved use of study strategies, higher confidence level, and increased content knowledge.

Wilcox, F. K. (1992, February 17). Supplemental Instruction: Interview with Deanna Martin and Robert Blanc. [Videotape]. J. Connett (Producer) Kansas City, MO: National Diffusion Network, United States Department of Education.
This videotape interview provides a historic overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. The creator of the SI program --
Deanna Martin -- and her husband Robert Blanc who customized the use of SI with medical students are interviewed in this program. Topics included: overview of the SI program; historical background of SI; typical activities in SI sessions; training of SI leaders; and suggested methods of evaluating the SI program.

Wilcox, F. K. (1993). Supplemental Instruction: Improving academic success in historically-difficult courses [Audio cassette]. Iowa City, IA: National Center for Student Retention. Available: Interlibrary loan from Valencia Community College in Florida.
Taped at the 1993 National Conference on Higher Education in New Orleans, LA, Dr. Kim Wilcox from UMKC discusses his experience with Supplemental Instruction (SI), a nonremedial model of student academic assistance that targets historically-difficult courses rather than high-risk students.

Wilcox, F. K. (1996). Supplemental Instruction session demonstration. [Videotape]. F. K. Wilcox (Producer) Kansas City, MO: The University of Missouri-Kansas City.
This videotape provides a simulation of a Supplemental Instruction (SI) session in an introductory Physical Science course. Students who are participating in SI during the current academic term simulate a SI session for a recent class lecture. Common SI session activities are illustrated: vocabulary development, identification of main ideas, connecting ideas, creating visual matrixes, lecture note review, and test question prediction. SI participants and the SI leader for the course share benefits of SI participation. The moderator then provides a debrief of the SI session.

 

Section Five: Newsletter Articles

Allen, M., Kolpas, S., & Stathis, P. (1992, October). Supplemental Instruction in calculus at a community college. Collaborative Learning Exchange Newsletter, 8-9  At Glendale Community College (Glendale, CA) an experiment was conducted in several calculus courses regarding optional and mandatory attendance. In the traditional SI model attendance in SI is optional and anonymous. In the classes where mandatory attendance was required, students received a 10 percent boost in their grade for participating and submitting additional homework assignments. SI participants earned a mean final course grade that was 20 percentage points higher (70 percentile vs. 50 percentile). In another experiment SI session strategies were integrated into the class sessions. The class instructor developed the work sheets used in the SI sessions. The students in the modified course were compared to classes where SI sessions were not integrated into them. The SI participants earned a mean final course grade nearly a full-letter grade higher than the other students. While initial comments from SI participants were negative, by the end of the term the comments were highly supportive of the SI program.

Arendale, D. (1996). Lessons that I have learned from students in peer study groups. National Association for Developmental Education Newsletter, 20(1), 1-3  Based on comments from Supplemental Instruction leaders and participants, this newsletter article describes six lessons learned by the author in his role as a course lecturer: 1) student-led discussions are needed to make lectures and reading assignments more valuable to students; 2) sometimes the lecturer spends too much time telling and not enough time modeling the thinking process for finding the answers and developing critical thinking abilities; 3) the lecturer needs to be careful not to by accident intimidate students; 4) only through student discussions will many be able to construct and retain the knowledge from the class; 5) the lecturer needs to frequently seek student feedback to improve my classroom instruction; and 6) there is more to learn at college than what happens in class.

Congos, D. H. (1993, Fall). A model for Supplemental Instruction in Introductory Chemistry. Supplemental Instruction Update, 1, 3 This article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at The University of North Carolina at Charlotte in Introductory Chemistry courses. Four suggestions are made for problem solving activities: 1) SI leader models problem solving steps; 2) SI participants verbalize and write down the steps to solve the problem and how they arrived at their answers; 3) students ask each other questions during the problem solving process; 4) rules for solving the problem are written on the black board; 5) students work by themselves to solve similar problems; 6) students work on recognizing problem types; 7) SI leaders facilitate the discussion process of the students; 8) each step in the problem solving process is identified and numbered; and 9) students continue to practice on problems till they master the process.

Craig-Claar, D. (1994, Summer). Starting Supplemental Instruction at Maple Woods Community College. Supplemental Instruction Update, 1-2
The author is the Associate Dean of Instruction at Maple Woods Community College (MO). She describes the development of the Supplemental Instruction program at her campus. The article describes the administrative steps that were taken to initiate the program. A creative solution to compensate the SI leaders was that they were paid with fee waivers rather than the more common monthly paycheck.

Doyle, T. (1999, Winter). Ferris State University's structured learning assistance program. Michigan Developmental Educational Consortium Newsletter, 4-5,8.
This newsletter article describes a modification of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model at Ferris State University. The Structured Learning Assistance Program (SLA) is based on SI and provides both an academic and an affective support system. SLA targets both high-risk for failure gateway and historically difficult upper division courses with four-hour per-week directed practice trainings. The SLA trainings are formally scheduled in the student schedule just like an accompanying science lab. Attendance at the training is required of all students the first week of the course or until the first test, quiz or other assessment is given in the class. Following the assessment, attendance is required only for students whose course grade point average falls below a 2.0 Other students may voluntarily continue to attend the SLA sessions. In addition to traditional SI program features, class professors receive regular, ongoing information about student progress, student concerns, and ways of better connecting with students. SLA sessions provide more explicit instruction in learning strategies. Research studies suggest that SLA students earn higher final course grades than nonparticipants in control groups.

Edelnant, V. (1999). Supplemental Instruction program helps students succeed. Recruitment and Retention in Higher Education, 13(5), 3
This short article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at Wartburg College in Waverly, IA. The SI program is four years old at the 1,500 student undergraduate Wartburg College. Benefits for the SI leaders reported by the author include developing empathy for the faculty members, experimenting with a possible career as a teacher, and development of their leadership skills.

Gravina, M. (1991). Supplemental Instruction: SI for "at-risk" courses. Freshman Year Experience Newsletter, 3(4), 8
This newsletter article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program.

Green, D. (1990). Student mentors fight departmental attrition. Academic Leader: The Newsletter for Academic Deans and Department Chairs, 6(3), 2
This newsletter article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. In addition to comments from SI's creator,
Deanna Martin, it also provides a quotation from Professor Lowell Orr at Kent State University who is using SI in his two biology courses. Orr supports the SI program since the SI leaders help participants to develop their own problem-solving skills.

Hester, B. (1992). Course teaches new skills with video. Arctic College Dialogue Newsletter, 6(2), 11
This newsletter article provides an overview of the use of Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI) at Arctic College, Iqaluit, Northwest Territories.

Hill, D. (1992, October). Supplemental Instruction in the social sciences at Weber State University in Ogden, UT. Collaborative Learning Exchange Newsletter, 10-11  The author reports on the implementation of Supplemental Instruction at Weber State University in Ogden, Utah. In the 1991-92 year SI was offered in US History 170, American National Government 110, Introduction to Criminal Justice 106, Introduction to Philosophy 101, and Introduction to Economics 101. In the Introduction to Criminal Justice 106 course the SI participants earned a higher percent of A and B final course grades (80% vs. 53%). The article described some of the SI session activities for the social science courses: cause and effect; comparison and contrast; short writing activities; review of elements of research reports; review lecture note taking strategies; integration of outside reading assignments with lecture notes; and interpretations of reading assignments.

Hostetter, S. (1994, Summer). Improving college student retention: Interview with David Arendale. National Tutoring Association Newsletter, (3), 2-3
The interview of David Arendale provided an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. Tinto's Model of Student Retention was discussed and its relationship to explaining the effectiveness of the SI model was discussed. Data from a study of students at the University of Missouri-Kansas City suggested that SI participation with positively correlated with increased levels of reenrollment at the institution when compared with non-SI participants. It is estimated that through increased reenrollment rates, the SI program generates over $200,000 in annual savings.

King, P. (1992, Winter). Kingston University: A British supervisor's Supplemental Instruction experience. Supplemental Instruction Update, 1, 3
This newsletter article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at Kingston University in London, UK. The author describes the use of the Assistant SI supervisor to help supervise an expanding SI program. The need for all SI leaders to attend frequent update training sessions is urged with the entire group meeting at the beginning of the meeting and then breaking into smaller groups based on academic disciplines for the remainder of the time.

Koehler, C. (1995, Spring). Supplemental Instruction and critical thinking. Supplemental Instruction Update, 1, 3
This article by an assistant professor of Communication Studies at the University of Missouri-Kansas City describes the utility of Supplemental Instruction (SI) for developing the critical thinking skills of SI participants. SI sessions involve a natural environment for inquiry by a community of learners. The SI leader helps participants to develop independent thinking. As students become engaged and active participants in the intellectual discourse that occurs during SI session, students move to higher levels of thought.

Levitz, R. (1990). Supplemental Instruction takes off. Recruitment and Retention in Higher Education Newsletter, 4(11), 7
This newsletter article provides a short overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. George Russell, chancellor at UMKC was quoted, "The SI approach avoids both the remedial stigma of typical assistance programs and the high costs of one-on-one tutoring.".

Lockie, N. M., & Van Lanen, R. J. (1992, January). Supplemental Instruction in Chemistry: A collaborative relationship among students, faculty, and a peer facilitator. Illinois Association for Personalized Programs Newsletter, 1, 3-4
This newsletter article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at Saint Xavier College (Chicago, IL) in chemistry courses. Data from a 1990-91 study with a Chemistry 108 course suggests that SI participants earn higher mean final course grades and receive lower rates of D, F and withdrawals (15.4% vs. 37.1%) than non-SI participants.

Matthews, S., Liparato, S., Shah, P., Smigell, E., Smith, T., & Schmidt, T. (1993, Summer). Supplemental Instruction and biology. Supplemental Instruction Update, 1, 3  The article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in biology at Wayne State University (Detroit, MI). The authors selected biology for several reasons: large lecture sections; lecture-focused course; fast-moving lectures; problem-solving approach; focus on interrelatedness of content material; and relationships between of ideas and concepts. Common SI session activities included: finding connections between classroom lectures and textbook; developing charts and graphs to organize and visualize information and demonstrate relationships; moving away from just memorizing content to deeper discussions of meaning and relationships.

O'Flaherty, K., & Siera, M. (1985). The use of Supplemental Instruction in an Introduction to Sociology course. ASA Teaching Newsletter, 10(6), 13-16  At Wichita State University (KS) the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model was used to help improve student academic performance in an Introduction to Sociology course. This Spring 1984 study suggested that SI attendance was positively correlated with higher mean final course grades. Of the SI participants, 75 percent received a final course grade of A or B while 59 percent of non-SI participants received a similar grade.

Ogilvie, C. (1991, April). Supplemental Instruction: The California State University model. Illinois Association for Personalized Learning Programs Newsletter, 4-5
This newsletter article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program at California State University. To increase attendance at the SI sessions, students are required to register for a section of one credit and pay tuition to allow attendance at the SI sessions. SI is provided to 35 sections of courses.

Payton, J., & Overly, C. (1994, Summer). Supplemental Instruction and Physical Geology. Supplemental Instruction Update, 1, 3 This article provides an overview of the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in a Physical Geology course at Western Michigan University. This course has served as a "gatekeeper" course for students who are considering geology as a major. Frequently cited SI session activities included: vocabulary development/review; ask group to assist with generating SI session agenda; create a visual matrix to help organize information; frequently use the "informal quiz" to check for comprehension level of SI participants; and create opportunities for students to connect lecture material to SI participants' lives.

Ramming, V. (1989, Fall). Supplemental Instruction: A proactive frontloading model. New Jersey Association of Developmental Educators Newsletter, 1
This newsletter article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program.

Reeve, A. (1989, August). Different approach to tutoring: Supplemental Instruction. Aspirations: Association of Special Programs in Region Eight Newsletter, 2, 1
This newsletter article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program with advantages of the SI model in comparison with traditional tutoring.

Staff writer. (1993, November). Academic programme at Queensland University of Technology well supported. The Chinese Business and Professional Association of Queensland Newsletter, 20-21
This newsletter article describes the use of Peer Assisted Study Strategies (PASS) at Queensland University of Technology (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia). PASS is the local institutional name for Supplemental Instruction (SI). The article cites the PASS program as one of the projects that contributed to QUT being selected as Australia's University of the Year in 1993. Benefits reported for PASS participants include reduction of the failure rate and increased student motivation and confidence. PASS leaders listed the following benefits for them: developed personal character and leadership skills, improving their own learning skills, improved their facilitating techniques, acquired group management and presentation skills, and built their self-confidence and self-esteem. Ron Gardiner and Henry Loh are cited as the early leaders of the PASS project.

Staff writer. (1994, Fall). Supplemental Instruction. South Carolina Association of Developmental Educators Newsletter, 3
The newsletter article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program.

Staff writer. (1987). Redefining an attrition risk. Recruitment and Retention in Higher Education Newsletter, 1(3), 6-7
This newsletter article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. It contains interviews with
Deanna Martin, creator of the SI program, and May Garland who directs SI training trainings. Garland suggests that SI can help bridge students from developmental education into the regular courses in the curriculum.

Staff writer. (1989). New Mexico program targets at-risk classes. National On-Campus Report, 17(2), 3
The newsletter article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program as it is being implemented at the University of New Mexico in introductory chemistry and biology classes during 1988. Data suggests a half a letter grade higher final course grades for SI participants.

Staff writer. (1995). Supplemental Instruction equals science success. Recruitment and Retention in Higher Education Newsletter, 9(8), 9
This newsletter article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at the University of Wisconsin. The researchers from UW studied why the teaching of science discouraged women from pursuing academic degrees in the area. SI was cited as a supportive learning environment that was different than the one experienced in the classroom. Several suggestions for faculty members: build a comfortable classroom culture; provide collaborative learning activities; accept students' uncertainties about the content material; confirm the capacity of students to learn; and personalize science so that students see the connections between the content and their personal lives.

Staff writer. (1998). 1998 exemplary programs show how six campuses address pressing issues. NASPA Forum, 20(2), 7-10
The National Association for Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA) conducted a national competition to identify exemplary programs located on postsecondary campuses that meet pressing issues. The Supplemental Instruction (SI) program from the University of Missouri-Kansas City was recognized through this process. This article provides a short overview of the SI program.

Stephens, J. E. (1994, Fall). Supplemental Instruction in developmental mathematics. Supplemental Instruction Update, 1-2
Based on a research study concerning the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) with developmental mathematics courses at Tarleton State University (Forth Worth, TX), the data suggests the following: attendance at SI sessions is correlated with the perceived level of academic challenge in the course; academic achievement of SI participants is correlated with the level of activity in the SI sessions; if there is extensive verbalizations of the thinking process by SI session attendees, females will tend to have higher achievement than males; and if there is low levels by SI participants of vocalizing the thinking process the academic achievement is similar for males and females.

Wilcox, F. K. (Ed.). Supplemental Instruction Update.
The Supplemental Instruction Update newsletter is published by the National Center for Supplemental Instruction (SI) at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. Topics in the newsletter include: interviews with SI programs in programs around the world; articles discussing adaptions of the SI model; reports of SI research studies; information regarding upcoming training trainings for SI Supervisors and conferences for SI program managers; and other topics. Subscriptions are complimentary for anyone regardless of whether they have currently active SI programs.

Wilcox, F. K. (1992, Winter). Twenty years of Supplemental Instruction: An interview with Deanna Martin. Supplemental Instruction Update, 1, 6  This newsletter interview of Deanna Martin, creator of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program, discusses the historical development of the model and its part in the development of collaborative learning in higher education. Martin believes that the next stage of development for SI is its mainstreaming of academic support and integration of learning strategies into the classroom. She reports of how SI is being used for faculty development.

Wilcox, F. K. (1996, Fall). Supplemental Instruction: Academic support in high-risk courses. Midwest Regional Association for Developmental Education Newsletter, 10-11
This newsletter article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program.

Wilcox, F. K. (1996, Summer). Supplemental Instruction in South Africa: An interview with Andre Havenga. Supplemental Instruction Update, 1, 3
This interview describes the development of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program at institutions in the Republic of South Africa. Andre Havenga is an SI Certified Trainer for South Africa and is also the Director of Instructional and Organizational Development at the University of Port Elizabeth (UPE). UPE provides SI support for 77 courses in 21 academic departments. Havenga reports the following benefits of the SI program: provides academic support for the new student subpopulations that were formerly excluded by government policy; academic support is mainstreamed with academic courses; provides faculty development through feedback that allows the instructor to clarify and provide additional information at the next class session; and provide another forum for social integration. SI leaders report a number of benefits for themselves: enhanced academic skills; improved self-confidence; additional work experience that may help with job interviews; and additional contact with key faculty members from their discipline.

Wilcox, F. K. (1996, Summer). Supplemental Instruction in Sweden: An interview with Marita Bruzell-Nilsson and Leif Bryngfors. Supplemental Instruction Update, 1, 3  This interview describes the development of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program in Sweden. Academic assistance at postsecondary institutions in Sweden is a new movement. The interviewees are SI Supervisors at Lund University (Lund, Sweden) and are also Certified Trainers for SI. Nearly a dozen institutions in Sweden have established SI programs. SI leaders report that they like serving in the program since they have an opportunity to: develop their presentation skills; practice putting forth a point of view; and developing group management skills that will be useful when they become employed.

Wilcox, F. K. (1997, Spring). Supplemental Instruction in Australia: An interview with Ron Gardiner. Supplemental Instruction Update, 1-2
This interview with Ron Gardiner provides an overview of the development of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at institutions in Australia. Gardiner, a physicist, is an SI Certified Trainer and is Emeritus Professor and Coordinator of the SI program at Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane. An additional feature of the SI program is that the classroom instructor requests feedback from the SI leader concerning the comprehension level of the students. This provides an opportunity for the instructor to clarify or provide more information at the next class period.

Wilcox, F. K. (1998, Winter). Supplemental Instruction. NASPA IV West Newsletter, 4.
This short newsletter article provides a basic overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. The article three of the reasons that are commonly cited by institutions regarding why they have selected SI: (1) high risk courses are easy to identify; (2) SI meets the perceived needs of students; and (3) SI avoids a remedial image and is non-threatening.

Wolfe, R. F., & Wells, E. (1990, Winter). Community mentors for Supplemental Instruction. National Association for Developmental Education Newsletter, 12  Anne Arundel Community College (Arnold, MD) has made an adaption of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) to provide additional information concerning personal and career options related to the courses that have SI attached to them. A community person (mentor) is invited to attend one SI session for a course that is applicable to the mentor's field. A mentor may be a personal friend of the course instructor, or may be active in the vocational trade council, cooperative education, or advisory boards serving career programs at the college. The SI leader helps prepare the SI participants to generate questions for the mentor's visit. The mentors become another partner in encouraging academic success and the meaningfulness of the course for future jobs. Upon mutual interest, the mentors and students may continue discussions outside of class and SI sessions that might result in job site visits or additional career discussions.





 

Section Six: ERIC Documents

Arendale, D., & Martin, D. C. (1997). Review of research concerning the effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction from the University of Missouri-Kansas City and other institutions. Kansas City, MO: The University of Missouri-Kansas City. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 370 502)
This report provides both a narrative overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model and a review of the major research studies concerning SI. A major portion of the research concerns a meta-analysis of SI research from 270 institutions from across the U.S. The analysis reviewed 4,945 research studies of 505,738 college students between 1982-83 and 1995-96. Regardless of institutional type or academic discipline, SI participants in comparison with non-participants receive mean final course grades that are higher (2.42 vs. 2.09), higher rates of A or B final course grades (46.8% vs. 35.9%) and mean percentages of D, F and withdrawal rates that are lower (23.1% vs. 37.1%). Even when the data is separated by broad academic disciplines or individual departments or classes, the positive differences for SI participants remain. In a national study of 13 institutions and 2,410 students, the question of helpfulness of SI for students of color was examined. The study found that students of color participated in SI at rates equal or exceeding those of White students (White, 33.8%; African American, 42.0%; Latino, 50.9%; Asian/Pacific, 33.3%; and Native American, 42.9%). Students of color received higher grades than similar students (2.02 final course grade vs. 1.55, rate of 36% for D, F, or W vs. 43% for non-SI participants). Studies from the University of Missouri-Kansas City mirror those from the national studies. A study of UMKC that examines 375 courses with an enrollment of 14,667 students year by year from 1980-81 to 1995-96 found that SI participants earned high mean final course grades, higher rates of A and B final course grades and lower rates of D, F and course withdrawals. In a Winter 1996 study concerning the potential bias of student motivation the results favored the SI participants. SI participants received: final course grade of 2.78, rate of 58.9% for final grades of A or B, rate of 17.2% for D, F or W. The non-SI motivational control group received lower levels of academic achievement: final grade of 2.16, 33.9% A or B, and 26.8% for D, F or W. All other non-SI participants received grades similar to the motivated non-SI group: final grade of 2.38, A or B rate of 42.7%, and 38.6% D, F or W. In a study of UMKC students separated into quartile groups on the basis of standardized entrance test scores, the SI participants outperformed their non-SI counterpart quartile group in nearly all comparisons. Top quartile: SI group 3.29 final course grade vs. 2.83 for non-SI, 92.9% reenrollment vs. 93.1% for non-SI; Middle two quartile groups: SI group 2.67 vs. 2.28, 90.5% reenrollment vs. 77.9% for non-SI; Bottom quartile: SI group 2.10 final course grade vs. 1.77 for non-SI, 85.6% reenrollment vs. 77.9% for non-SI. A study of SI attendance during Winter 1996 suggested a positive correlation between higher academic achievement and higher levels of SI attendance: no SI attendance: 2.37 final course grade, 42.2% A or B, 39.3% D, F or W; attended one to three times: 2.77, 56.3% A or B, 21.4% D, F or W; attended four to seven times: 2.82 final course grade, 63.0% A or B, 17.4% D, F or W. In a study of UMKC students who were first-time freshmen students in 1989, SI participants had graduated at a rate of 46.0% by Fall 1996 as compared with 30.3% of students who had never participated in SI. Other studies include research questions concerning demographic variables and rival hypotheses.

Harrington, J., & Moore, D. (1986). Say "Si" to supplementals. Paper presented at the 7th Annual Meeting of the Rocky Mountain Regional Conference of the International Reading Association, Colorado Spring, CO. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 270 739)
This paper provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. The authors describe a pilot test of the SI program with a Spanish class at the University of Nebraska-Omaha. Lessons learned from the pilot test of SI included: tie SI sessions to one course taught by one instructor; hire staff leaders for sessions; provide adequate feedback and constructive criticism for session leaders; and inform students that SI session attendance is not a substitute for independent studying.

Hawthorne, J., & Hawthorne, J. W. (1987). Separating the wheat from the chaff: Finding the unique effect of Supplemental Course Instruction. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 328 201) Supplemental Instruction (SI) at Olivet Nazarene University (CA) was examined through a study utilizing path analysis. Confounding factors such as the voluntary nature of the study sessions and the open admission policy of the college were controlled through path analysis/structural equation modeling. The analysis studied: 1) the effect of factors affecting SI participation, such as high school rank, marital status, semester load, and expected grade; and 2) the effects of SI participation on course grade, semester grade point average, and re-enrollment. Overall, path analysis explained 12.5 percent of the total variance of SI participation. Three of the exogenous variables have a direct, statistically significant, impact on SI participation: 1) The study found that the more a student is "at-risk" the more likely he or she is to use SI. 2) There is a direct positive effect between reported high school grades and SI participation. 3) The longer the student has been out of high school, the less likely he is to use SI. Two endogenous variables also have direct impacts on SI participation: 1) The more a student works, the less likely he is to attend SI sessions. 2) Students who expect to do well in the course are significantly more likely to attend SI sessions. SI participation had significant direct effects on course grade, semester GPA, and reenrollment. Since there was direct effects of SI on grade point average and semester grade point average, the authors suggest the transfer of study skills learned to other courses.

Kenney, P. A. (1989). Effects of Supplemental Instruction on student performance in a college-level mathematics course. Paper presented at the 1989 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA: (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 347 874) This paper describes a research study that used Supplemental Instruction (SI) in a first-semester calculus course for business and economics majors at the University of Texas at Austin. The experimental design for this study used Campbell and Stanley's Nonequivalent Control Group model. The study used two lecture classes with the same instructor. Each class was divided into two discussion sections, and of those, one from each received the SI treatment. In the control sections the teaching assistant performed typical duties. In the SI sections the assistant performed the same duties but in addition she provided instruction on the study skills relevant to the course as it progressed and other activities that SI leaders would perform or facilitate. The results showed a statistically significant difference favoring the SI treatment group: the control group mean course grade point average of 2.43 and that for the treatment group of 3.00; the control group mean semester grade point average (GPA) of 2.51 and that for the treatment group GPA of 2.95. A multiple linear regression model was then chosen as a more complete method of analysis. Three of the independent variables had coefficients which were significant at the .05 level -- high school class rank, discussion section attendance, and control/treatment group membership. This helps to answer the question of whether SI was just a form of "double exposure" to the course content. Since SI sessions were qualitatively different than the traditional discussion sections (as evaluated by outside observers using a observation protocol) and that the students who participated in the SI sessions earned higher mean final course grades, it appears that SI sessions were more than double exposure. A multiple regression analysis of semester grade point average found that three of the variables were significant at the .05 level -- the SAT Mathematical score, discussion section attendance, and group membership.

Martin, D. C., & Arendale, D. (1990). Supplemental Instruction: Improving student performance, increasing student persistence. Kansas City, MO: University of Missouri-Kansas City. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 327 103)
This report describes the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. Among the topics in the paper: narrative overview of the SI model; history of the development of SI at UMKC and other institutions across the U.S.; outcomes for students and the institution; and potential for adoption by other institutions.

Maxwell, M. (1997). What are the functions of a college learning assistance center? (ERIC Document Reproduction Service, No. ED 413 031).
To be effective, college learning assistance centers (LACs) must reflect the mission and goals of the institution and be coordinated with existing programs and services. Based on the professional literature, LACs engage in fourteen major functions. One of them is providing Supplemental Instruction (SI) for academic support and enrichment in historically-difficult courses. Although most SI programs are voluntary and offer no credit, there are exceptions. At California State University at Long Beach the Learning Assistance Center offers 20 to 30 SI classes in different academic subjects each term. These students can earn one academic credit for attending weekly SI sessions and completing other course requirements.

Ochae, R. (1995). Writing partners: Improving writing and learning through Supplemental Instruction in freshman writing classrooms. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Council of Teachers of English in San Diego, CA: (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 395 323)
A study was conducted at Black Hills State University (SD) which has an open admission policy and high attrition and dropout rates in the first writing course. Results suggested that SI helped SI participants to improve writing skills (gain of 15.7% on standardized test vs. 14.0% for courses taught by the same professor but without SI), earn higher mean final course grades (2.6 vs. 2.5, reduce failure rates (13.8% vs. 16.0%), and lower course withdrawal rates (6.1% vs. 6.9%).

Warren, B. Z. (1997). Personality, learning style, gender, and ethnic characteristics of students attending Supplemental Instruction. Paper presented at the Annual Teaching/Learning Conference, October 10-11, 1997, Ashland, KY. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service, No. ED 413 019).
A study was conducted to gather information on students participating in Supplemental Instruction (SI) at the University of Central Florida in Spring 1997. Using Long's Personality Checklist, 163 students classified themselves as aggressive-dependent, aggressive-dependent, passive-independent, or passive-dependent. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was administered to the group. Findings included: (1) Although the majority of SI students were White and female with aggressive-dependent personality styles, science students displayed assimilator and converger learning styles, while non-science students displayed accommodator learning styles. (2) Hispanics most commonly identified their learning style as assimilator. (3) Black and Hispanic students showed the least inclination toward the converger learning style, while it was one of the main styles displayed by White students.

Wolfe, R. F. (1991). Supplemental Instruction with mentoring support at Anne Arundel Community College. Arnold, MD: Anne Arundel Community College. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service, No. ED 413 942).
Anne Arundel Community College's Supplemental Instruction (SI) with Mentoring Support provides a program of academic support for students enrolled in difficult required courses, while also creating valuable opportunities for faculty professional development and community interaction. By adapting the SI model for the community college, this program has trained students and faculty to work together to facilitate learning and thinking skills through a learner-centered approach of peer group study and community and faculty mentoring support. Student SI leaders are trained through a three-credit hour practicum in education course. Faculty who are trained in study skills and learning strategies through a three day pre-term training seminar: attend classes and study sessions in courses outside their discipline for the first four weeks of the academic term; work as mentors to student SI leaders to prepare strategies for SI sessions; work with SI leaders to create supplemental materials; formally evaluate SI leaders during the second half of the academic term; and maintain a daily journal. In evaluating the project, faculty mentors stated the program provided an opportunity to broaden their professional expertise and their perspectives on student learning. They had developed new teaching approaches, an awareness of their teaching styles, and an understanding of students' needs. A second modification to the SI program provided local community leaders in their career fields to provide mentoring support in small group sessions and on-site visits. On the day of the community leader's visit, SI leaders conduct an abbreviated SI session, giving the community mentor the opportunity to observe and participate in an SI session. Then, the community mentor speaks informally with students, discussing career related topics and answering students' questions.

Zaritsky, J. S. (1989). Peer tutoring: Issues and concerns, results of a survey. Long Island City, NY: La Guardia Community College. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 315 134)
In 1988, a survey was conducted to determine the characteristics and extend of peer tutoring program at two- and four-year colleges in New York. Findings included: 95 percent of institutions had at least one peer tutoring program; 2) 41 percent had centralized tutoring labs; 3) institutions most commonly provided Supplemental Instruction in mathematics, biology, business, chemistry, and English; and 4) 96 percent provided peer tutors with training.

Zaritsky, J. S. (1994). Supplemental Instruction: A peer tutoring program at La Guardia Community College. Long Island City, NY: La Guardia Community College. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 373 850)
This report describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at La Guardia Community College (NY). In spring 1993, an SI program was pilot tested in Principles of Accounting I, Introduction to Economics I and Fundamentals of Human Biology I courses. In Economics I the SI participants received a higher percent of A, B, and C final course grades (37% vs. 27%) and a lower rate of D, F, and course withdrawals (63% vs. 73%). In Economics I the SI participants received a higher percent of A, B and C final course grades (51.7% vs. 43.6%) and a lower rate of D, F and course withdrawals (48.3% vs. 56.4%). In Human Biology I the SI participants received a higher rate of A, B, and C final course grades (63.2% vs. 48.3%) and a lower rate of D, F, and course withdrawals (36.7% vs. 51.7%). Some SI leaders reported personal improvement in the following areas: higher self confidence since they helped other students to do better; increased content knowledge through second review of the course; improved interpersonal communication skills; accelerated emotional and intellectual growth.





 

Section Seven: Published Conference Proceedings

Arendale, D. (1994). Supplemental Instruction: Providing academic assistance at small colleges. The Freshman Year Experience 7th Annual Conference for Small Campuses Conference Program and Proceedings (pp. 61-62). Columbia, SC: The National Center for the Study of the Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 374 765)
This paper describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in small colleges to provide academic support.

Arendale, D. (1997). Supplemental Instruction: Review of research concerning the effectiveness of SI from The University of Missouri-Kansas City and other institutions across the United States. In Proceedings of the 17th and 18th Annual Institutes for Learning Assistance Professionals: 1966 and 1997 (pp. 1-25). Tuscon, AZ: University Learning Center, University of Arizona. 
This paper provides a narrative overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model and a review of the major research studies concerning SI. The studies are based on data from the University of Missouri-Kansas City and a separate data base of nearly 5,000 research reports describing the use of SI at 270 institutions with a total student enrollment of more than 500,000 in the classes where SI was offered.

Arendale, D., & McLaren, A. (1999). Supplemental Instruction: Variations on the basic theme. In Selected Proceedings of the 16th (1997) & 17th (1998) Annual Conferences of the Pennsylvania Association of Developmental Educators (pp. 40-44). Pittsburgh, PA: The Community College of Allegheny County
This paper describes some of the successful variations of Supplemental Instruction (SI). After an initial overview of SI, descriptions about innovations of the model. The first concerns Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI). VSI is described as an information delivery system. College students enroll in telecourses that are identical to credit courses delivered live on campus by the same professor. Students enrolled in these VSI course sections attend class eight hours a week rather than three hours since the videotape lectures are frequently stopped to engage in SI session activities. Developmental level students enrolled in VSI course sections earn higher final course grades than the traditional students enrolled in the live course sections. The second variation of the SI model is to use it for faculty development and renewal. Successful models include Salem State College and Anne Arundel Community College. Common activities include: SI leader providing anonymous feedback to the course lecturer; lecturer incorporating SI session activities inside of class sessions; lecturers serving as assistant SI supervisors and expanding their instructional/learning skills by observing other professors; and other associated activities.

Barrett, M., Sutcliffe, P., & Smith, B. (1994). Students as mentors: The case of management education. Proceedings of the Conference of the Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management Wellington, Australia: Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management.
This paper describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) to have advanced-level students (peer mentors) help commencing students (mentees) overcome the teaching and learning problems often associated with large lecture-based introductory courses in management in several courses at Queensland University of Technology (Australia). "Management and Organization" has the primary focus for this study. Students who attended six or more sessions had significantly higher final course grades than those who attended less than six times. It appears that motivation or self-selection was not a major variable since the students who attended six or more times had a similar academic profile to students who did not attend at the same frequency. Surveys of students suggested that the mentoring program helped them to develop new study strategies and approach the material in a more effective manor. Mentors reported that they improved their interpersonal communication skills, ability to mange group dynamics, and enhanced their personal study skills.

Bruzell-Nilsson, M., & Bryngfors, L. (1996). Use of Supplemental Instruction to improve student learning in Sweden. A passport to enhanced student learning, success, satisfaction, and retention. Proceedings of the International Conference on the First-Year Experience, St. Andrews, Scotland (pp. 67-68). Columbia, SC: The National Resource Center for the Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 398 792)
This article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at postsecondary institutions in Sweden. Both a basic overview of the SI model and adaptions to the SI model for use in Sweden are shared.

Cezar, T., & Gordy, K. (1985). Supplemental Instruction: A model of academic support. Published Conference Proceedings of the Midwest Regional Association of Developmental Educators St. Louis. MO: Midwest Regional Association of Developmental Educators
This paper describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) with improving academic achievement of students in historically difficult courses.

Clark, C., & Koch, E. (1997). Supplemental Instruction for the South African context: A case study at the University of Port Elizabeth. In R. B. Ludeman, & S. Hubler (Eds.), Quality student services around the world: Bridging student needs and student success (pp. 124-146). Washington, D.C.: National Association of Student Personnel Administrators.
This paper describes how the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program was adapted for use at the University of Port Elizabeth (UPE) in the Republic of South Africa. Issues discussed in the paper include: perceptions and academic performance of first year students; diversity in student composition in terms of language, culture and educational background; departments and curriculum developments; and the personal growth of SI leaders. SI is offered to students in 19 departments offering 25 courses in the Faculties of Science, Arts, Law, Economics, Social Science, and Health Science. The SI program is supervised by the Centre for Organisational and Academic Development (COAD). In a qualitative and quantitative study of students from Fall 1995 SI participants earned higher grades than nonattendees in nearly all courses. Follow up in the other courses suggested that SI was less than effective due to heavy time tabling of the students that precluded their regular attendance in SI sessions. Feedback provided through the SI program led to curricular reform in several courses where many students experienced academic challenges. SI was found to be equally effective for students from racially diverse and academically disadvantaged backgrounds. Faculty development activities occurred when lecturers attended SI leader training trainings and embedded SI session activities inside their traditional classroom presentations. The researchers suggested that participating lecturers changed their lecture style, made changes to the curriculum, and became more sensitive to diversity issues. SI leaders reported changes due to their involvement: reinforced knowledge of the academic discipline; improved personal academic performance; increased their facilitation and interpersonal skills; increased personal self esteem and confidence levels; and increased career opportunities due to skills in group facilitation.

Commander, N. E., Callahan, C. A., Shatton, C. B., & Smith, B. D. (1997). Adjunct courses and Supplemental Instruction: A ten step training. In Selected conference papers of the National Association for Developmental Education, Volume 3 (pp. 14-16). Mobile, AL: University of South Alabama.
At Georgia State University there has been a transition from focusing on developmental courses for some to offering learning support for all students. The authors provide ten questions that can guide an institution as they consider offering Supplemental Instruction (SI) and adjunct courses. In 1996 the institution was offering SI in 28 course sections will a combined enrollment of 3,900 students. About one-third of the students participated in SI sessions. SI participants earned between one half to a full letter grade higher in comparison with similar non-SI attendees. The ten questions that the authors suggest when designing a new learning support program are: 1. What makes your campus unique? 2. What population do you wish to serve? 3. What courses will you target? 4. How will you build faculty support? 5. How will you market your program? 6. How will you design your curriculum? 7. What results will you share with colleagues in your institution? 8. What results will you share with colleagues outside your institution? 9. How will you secure campus resources? 10. What problems are unique to your situation and what are possible solutions?

Cross, I. G. (1997). Peer support through Supplemental Instruction for civil engineering students. Proceedings from the 2nd Working Conference on Engineering Education: Professional Standards and Quality in Engineering Education (pp. 97-102). Sheffield, England: Sheffield Hallam University
This article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction for civil engineering students in the United Kingdom.

Gardiner, R. (1996). Supplemental Instruction: A cost-effective, student-centered collaborative learning program. Proceedings of the Second International Open Learning Conference (pp. 214-219). Brisbane, Queensland, Australia: International Open Learning Conference.
This paper presented by Emeritus Professor Ron Gardiner of Queensland University of Technology describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in Australia. After an extensive description of the SI model, program benefits for the SI Leaders and the course instructors are described. Benefits to the SI Leaders include: deeper understanding of the course content; development of leadership and group facilitation skills; increased self-confidence; improved job marketability and admission to advanced graduate work due to service as SI Leader; development of professional relationship with course professor; membership in an effective peer support network; and modest financial reward. Benefits for the course professors that have SI attached to their lectures: timely feedback concerning the comprehension level of the students regarding course material; opportunity to repeat previous lecture material in a modified fashion to increase comprehension; an option to modify future teaching strategies based on feedback from students; a basis for accessing additional funds through grants (e.g., teaching and learning development grants); increased rapport with students and SI Leaders; membership in local, national and international SI network; increased recognition from their colleagues; and increased satisfaction with their teaching role. The institution benefits in several ways: deployment of a cost-effective, student-centered learning enhancement program; membership in national and international SI networks; and effective means of managing the collective learning power of its students.

Gordy, K. (1987). Supplemental Instruction in the context of critical thinking. Proceedings of the Intellectual Skills Development Association Conference San Diego, CA: Intellectual Skills Development Association
This paper describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) to increase the level of critical thinking by students enrolled in historically difficult college courses.

Gravina, M. (1990). Supplemental Instruction: A collaborative experience. Conference Proceedings of the Southeastern Conference on At-Risk Students Savannah, GA: At-Risk Students Association
This article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program.

Gravina, M. (1990). Supplemental Instruction: A continuation of the goals of the Freshman Year Experience. Proceedings of the Freshman Year Experience Conference in Austin, TX Columbia, SC: The National Center for the Study of the Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition This article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction program.

Gravina, M. (1990). Supplemental Instruction: A continuation of the goals of the Freshman Year Experience. Proceedings of the Freshman Year Experience Conference in Tampa, FL Columbia, SC: The National Center for the Study of the Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition This article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction program.

Gravina, M. (1990). Supplemental Instruction and enhanced performance in social science classes. Conference Proceedings of the National Social Science Association Louisville, KY: National Social Science Association
This article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program.

Gravina, M. (1990). Supplemental Instruction: Success with diverse student populations. Conference Proceedings of the Minority Student Today Conference San Antonio, TX: Minority Student Today Conference
This article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. Data suggests that the SI program is helpful for all students, regardless of their ethnic background or previous levels of academic preparation.

Gravina, M. (1991). Supplemental Instruction: A continuation of the goals of the Freshman Year Experience. Proceedings of the Freshman Year Experience Conference in Kansas City, MO Columbia, SC: The National Center for the Study of the Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition
This article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction program.

Gravina, M. (1991). Supplemental Instruction: A continuation of the goals of the Freshman Year Experience. Proceedings of the Freshman Year Experience Conference in Long Beach, CA Columbia, SC: The National Center for the Study of the Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition
This article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction program.

Healy, C. E. (1994). Supplemental Instruction: A model for supporting student learning. Proceedings of the International Conference on Group and Interactive Learning (pp. 171-176). Southampton, England: Computational Mechanics Publications
This article describes the implementation of Supplemental Instruction in engineering courses at Glasgow Caledonia University in Scotland. The University is seeking to initiate cultural change through partnership events involving students, staff and employees. Research studies suggested improvements by both the SI participants (64.8 percentile vs. 54.4 percentile for non-SI participants) and the SI leaders. Some SI leaders reported that they had now considered pursuing a teaching career based on the positive experience with the SI program.

Hillman, J. C. (1996). The value of Supplemental Instruction in conceptual learning. In Proceedings of the 1996 4th AFRICON Conference (pp. 288-292). New York, NY: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Undergraduates have difficulty with courses that are conceptual in nature. The internalization of concepts and the development of problem solving skills is achieved by individuals in a variety of ways, relatively few of which are known by lecturers or actively sought. Supplemental Instruction (SI) can overcome these problems by encouraging students to learn from the experiences of others by participating in structured group discussions which are facilitated by senior students. This paper describes the development of an SI program with a first year electrical engineering course and concludes that it is both an efficient and cost effective methods of improving student learning, particularly for those from an educationally disadvantaged background.

Johnston, C. (1995). Peer tutoring in Economics at the University of Melbourne. In Australian Economic Education Symposium Proceedings (pp. 48-71). Adelaide, Australia: University of Adelaide This paper describes an adaptation of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model used at the University of Melbourne (Australia) in 1993. The model integrates Diploma of Education students in an undergraduate economics group learning program (Macroeconomic theory and Macroeconomic Policy). Several adaptations of the SI program: the group facilitator was a volunteer postgraduate Diploma of Education student; two wine and cheese evenings were scheduled to provide the facilitator and students to interact socially and exchange experiences with one another. It found that small groups operate more effectively in terms of group cohesion, longevity and perception of improved performance when supported by postgraduate students. Postgraduates developed an enhanced range of skills in relation to group management, cooperative learning and communication.

Kelly, B. A. (1995). Peer-Assisted Study Sessions: An instrument for quality assurance in high risk subjects. Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australia Conference Proceedings .
This paper describes the use of Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS), a local name for the Supplemental Instruction program as it is used at the Queensland University of Technology in Australia. The PASS program is being used as part of the institution's quality assurance (QA) system to regularly examine the needs of its customers (i.e., students enrolled in the courses that had PASS attached to them, faculty members who taught the courses, and the general community who employed the students). There was special concern for courses in which the faculty members were instructing students from other college majors. The PASS leaders served as a conduit for weekly communications with the faculty members regarding the comprehension level of the students and can make decisions regarding modifying their classroom delivery. This "just-in-time" feedback system provides immediate benefit to the students and lectures as weekly incremental improvements can be made.

Knott, A. (1997). Towards developing a theoretical and institutionally contextualised model of Supplemental Instruction in the curriculum which entails greater intra- and inter-institutional collaboration between Supplemental Instruction supervisors and academic development practitioners in the region. 1997 South African Association for Academic Development Conference Proceedings Vista University, Port Elizabeth Campus, Republic of South Africa.
This paper critically discusses the model of Supplemental Instruction (SI), an academic student assistance program that has been implemented on the Port Elizabeth campus of Vista University within the context of offering suggestions on how SI can be used by academic development (curriculum and institutional development). SI is one part of a comprehensive learning environment that promotes alternative teaching and learning methodologies and delivery systems that are relevant to the diverse needs of all students.

Koch, E. (1996). The relationship of attendance of Supplemental Instruction with the performance of first year students at the University of Port Elizabeth. Proceedings of the Conference on Student Contributions to Learning (pp. 104-127). Rhodes University, Grahamstown, Republic of South Africa.
The use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at The University of Port Elizabeth (South Africa) was investigated by examining the statistical relationship of attendance of SI with performance through multiple regression analysis. The sample consisted of first year students in the Science and Humanities faculties. In most of the courses there was a positive relationship between attendance of SI and performance. This was especially true for students who attended five or more times.

Lockie, N. M., & Van Lanen, R. J. (1997). Nursing students' success and retention in chemistry courses: A collaborative approach. 1997 International Nursing Research Congress Abstracts Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau
This article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) with improving academic performance of nursing students in chemistry courses. The authors used the SI program at Saint Xavier University in Chicago, IL.

Loh, H. (1993). Peer Assisted Study Sessions in anatomy for nursing students. Peer tutoring: Learning by teaching (pp. 193-201). Auckland, New Zealand: The University of Auckland.
This article describes the use of Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS), the local institutional name for their adaptation of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model at Queensland University of Technology (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia). Following an institutional commitment to Total Quality Management (TQM), some TQM principles were found consistent with the SI model of academic achievement. An anatomy course with first year nursing students was selected as a pilot for the SI program. Program outcomes include the following for SI participants: reported an increase in their confidence with the course after participating in SI sessions (87%); reduced percent of students failing the course (7.8% vs. 19.3%); agreed that the SI leaders motivated them to work harder (80%); increased their learning skills (90%); increased their understanding of the content material (87%); and increased their ability to apply the knowledge gained from class lectures (82%). SI leaders reported the following benefits to them: developed leadership and character, improved their own learning and facilitating techniques, acquired skills in group management, developed presentation skills, and increased their own confidence and self esteem.

Loh, H. (1993). Strategies to overcome the high failure rate in a subject. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on the First Year Experience, July 10-13, 1993, Boston, MA (p. 39). Columbia, SC: The National Center for the Study of the Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition.
The Queensland University of Technology (Brisbane, Australia) has investigated the applicability of Total Quality Management (TQM) for improving student academic success. An anatomy course for nursing students saw its failure rate drop from 22.8% to 13.6% after the introduction of several interventions, including Supplemental Instruction (SI). The local institutional name used is Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS). Course lecturers listed the following benefits of the program: rapid dissemination of information and instruction to students via the SI leaders; rapid feedback from students concerning course content; provided small group benefits in large lecture classes; improved and increased the amount of communications between students and the lecturer; and the lecturer was able to give students increased responsibility for the learning process. SI leaders mentioned the following benefits to themselves: developed leadership and character, improved their own learning and facilitating techniques, acquired skills in group management, developed presentation skills, and built their own confidence and esteem.

Loh, H. (1994). Strategies to overcome the first year high failure rate in anatomy for nursing students. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on the First-Year Experience, Dublin, Ireland (pp. 79-80). Columbia, SC: The National Resource Center for the Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition
This paper describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) since 1992 with nursing students at the Queensland University of Technology (Australia) in an anatomy course (LSB 181). At QUT, SI is known as PASS (Peer Assisted Study Sessions). Data from 1992 through 1995 suggest substantial benefits of the SI program to students, SI leaders and the course instructor. The performance of the students were examined on a 3 to 7 scale (3=fail, 4=pass, 5=credit, 6=distinction, 7=high distinction). SI participant interviews and 1995 survey data suggested agreement with the following statements regarding the impact of SI: increased confidence levels (87.0%), lowered anxiety levels (61.5%), higher motivation to achieve grades of distinction (84.6%), and developed new study skills (70.3%). Based on data from 1992 in the anatomy course, the SI participants achieved significantly (p < .01) higher levels of academic achievement. In comparison with non-SI participants, there were more grades of level 6 or 7 (39% vs. 27%) and less grades of level 3 (10% vs. 25%). When comparing failure rates, the results favored the SI participants. SI participants in 1995 failed the class at a rate of 2.7% while the non-SI group failed the class at a higher rate of 13.3%. To investigate the possible impact of student motivation, the failure rate of students who desired to participate in SI but were unable to attend due to time conflicts failed at nearly the same rate (12.7%) as the entire non-SI group (13.3%). This appears to support the conclusion that student motivation was not the major variable impacting student academic performance. The overall class average (including all SI and non-SI participants) for grades of level 3 (failure) were reduced from 22.8% before the introduction of SI down to 7.1% after the fourth year of SI. SI leaders reported the following positive results: developed leadership skills; improved their facilitation skills; improved their study skills; acquired group management skills; and increased their own confidence and self esteem. Instructors who had SI attached to their course reported the following positive results: rapid dissemination of information and instructions to the SI participants; provided benefits of small group instruction within the large lecture sections ( n = 400); instructors received feedback from students which allowed them to "fine-tune" teaching and improve teaching performance; involvement with the SI program provided new avenues for grants; enhancement of curriculum vitae; and improved positive attitude and sense of achievement since students improved academic performance.

Loh, H. (1996). Supplemental Instruction: A peer collaborative learning program applied within anatomy for first year nursing students. Proceedings of the 2nd Pacific Rim Conference on the First Year in Higher Education (pp. 281-290). Melbourne, Queensland, Australia: University of Melbourne.
This paper describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) since 1992 with nursing students at the Queensland University of Technology (Australia) in an anatomy course (LSB 181). At QUT, SI is known as PASS (Peer Assisted Study Sessions). Data from 1992 through 1995 suggest substantial benefits of the SI program to students, SI leaders and the course instructor. The performance of the students were examined on a 3 to 7 scale (3=fail, 4=pass, 5=credit, 6=distinction, 7=high distinction). SI participant interviews and 1995 survey data suggested agreement with the following statements regarding the impact of SI: increased confidence levels (87.0%), lowered anxiety levels (61.5%), higher motivation to achieve grades of distinction (84.6%), and developed new study skills (70.3%). Based on data from 1992 in the anatomy course, the SI participants achieved significantly (p < .01) higher levels of academic achievement. In comparison with non-SI participants, there were more grades of level 6 or 7 (39% vs. 27%) and less grades of level 3 (10% vs. 25%). When comparing failure rates, the results favored the SI participants. SI participants in 1995 failed the class at a rate of 2.7% while the non-SI group failed the class at a higher rate of 13.3%. To investigate the possible impact of student motivation, the failure rate of students who desired to participate in SI but were unable to attend due to time conflicts failed at nearly the same rate (12.7%) as the entire non-SI group (13.3%). This appears to support the conclusion that student motivation was not the major variable impacting student academic performance. The overall class average (including all SI and non-SI participants) for grades of level 3 (failure) were reduced from 22.8% before the introduction of SI down to 7.1% after the fourth year of SI. SI leaders reported the following positive results: developed leadership skills; improved their facilitation skills; improved their study skills; acquired group management skills; and increased their own confidence and self esteem. Instructors who had SI attached to their course reported the following positive results: rapid dissemination of information and instructions to the SI participants; provided benefits of small group instruction within the large lecture sections ( n = 400); instructors received feedback from students which allowed them to "fine-tune" teaching and improve teaching performance; involvement with the SI program provided new avenues for grants; enhancement of curriculum vitae; and improved positive attitude and sense of achievement since students improved academic performance.

Marra, R. M., & Litziner, T. A. (1997). A model for implementing Supplemental Instruction in engineering. In Proceedings of the 1997 Annual Conference on Frontiers in Education Conference (pp. 109-115). Pittsburgh, PA: International Electrical Engineers in Education
Supplemental Instruction (SI) is used at Pennsylvania State University (University Park, PA) to held students earn higher grades in electrical engineering courses.

Martin, D. C. (1994). Video-based Supplemental Instruction: An alternative to remedial courses. The national forum on new student athletes. Proceedings of the Freshman Year Experience Conference on the First-Year Experience, Columbia, SC (pp. 33-34). Columbia, SC: The National Resource Center for the Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 370 895)
This article describes the use of Video-Based Supplemental Instruction (VSI) at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. Both a basic overview of the VSI model and a data study of the pilot study at UMKC. Though the VSI students are less prepared academically than the students in the large lecture class, the VSI group received higher mean final course grades (3.64 vs. 2.41), higher overall reenrollment rates (94 percent vs. 85 percent), and higher reenrollment rates for academic probationary students (100 percent vs. 45 percent).

Martin, D. C., Hall, P. T., & Arendale, D. (1991). Academic success for inner city high school youth: The positive effects of Supplemental Instruction with an urban high school. Proceedings of the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges Conference Washington, D.C.: National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges.  This paper describe the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) with an urban high school in Kansas City, Missouri. Westport High School is a culturally-diverse school located in the central city. Over half the students were one or two years behind grade levels in reading and mathematics and an equal number were economically disadvantaged. SI was provided to students enrolled in 9th and 10th grade English and history classes. SI sessions were scheduled during a scheduled time during the school day three times each week. Research studies suggested that there was improvement in final course grades of students in the English (A and B grades: 28.7% vs. 13.6% before SI; F grades: 23.2% vs. 32.7% before SI)and history classes. Interviews with students and teachers suggest that participation in the SI program also promoted higher levels of class participation and higher achievement on standardized test scores.

McGlone, F. D. (1995). The integration of the principles of Supplemental Instruction in undergraduate law subjects. Proceedings of the Inaugural Pacific Rim First-Year Experience Conference Brisbane, Australia: National Center for the Study of the Freshman Year Experience and Students in Transition.
This paper describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at two classes in Australia's Queensland University of Technology Faculty of Law. SI was contextualized for use within the law curriculum as was described as a Student Peer Mentor (SPM) program. The program concentrated on improving qualitative learning outcomes for the students: promote student use of deep approaches to learning, develop generic lifelong learning skills, and increase student autonomy while encouraging them to work and learn cooperatively with their peers. Several unique features of SPM are identified: selected classes are not historically difficult, the class instructor and the SPM supervisor are the same person, and that the class has always provided a one hour staff-led small group seminar for each two hours of lecture. Other than those previously noted , many common features are shared by SI and SPM.

Murray, M. H. (1996). Resources for the resourceless: Maximizing student learning. Proceedings of the 8th Conference of the Australian Association of Engineering Education (pp. 162-166). Sydney, Australia: Australian Association of Engineering Education.
This article (which won "Best Paper" award at the conference) describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in the School of Civil Engineering, Queensland University of Technology (Australia). A basic engineering statics course in the first year has been transformed from a traditional lecturer-centered teaching mode into a student-centered resource-based model. Central to this transformation has been the integration of SI into the course. The SI sessions focus on interaction, discussion, and investigation rather than just simple problem solving. Before integration of SI in the course the total class (SI and non-SI students) mean final score was 46, in 1996 after the integration the score increased to 55. These results are based on the aggregated score from four quizzes during the semester, from a spaghetti bridge design/build/test project, and from a final end-of-semester exam. Based on standardized scores, the students in 1996 were less academically prepared than the ones in 1994 before SI was introduced. The SI participants received a higher mean final percentile grade in each year of the study (1995: 48 vs. 41; 1996: 56 vs. 42). There was a positive increase in final course score and higher levels of SI attendance. Students evaluated the SI session most useful of all course components ( SI sessions, 53%; lecture, 22%; text book, 16%; study guide, 13%; and tutorial, 9%). SI leaders mentioned the following benefits of the program for themselves: increased skill in group management; improved public speaking; gained skills in team building; increased group facilitation skills; improved personal time management; and increased interest from potential employers because of skills developed as a SI leader.

O'Donnell, L. E. (1995). Inclusion for learning disabilities: Technology with learning variables research and Supplemental Instruction. Empowering children with special needs: Practices around the world (pp. 192-195). Whitewater: International Association of Special Education
Learning Variables Research and Supplemental Instruction (LVR/SI) provide an innovative approach to inclusion for intellectually normal and gifted students with learning disabilities. The original Supplemental Instruction (SI) model is generally used with traditional college undergraduate and graduate students. Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI) allows enrolled high school or college students view the videotaped lectures of a college level course (e.g., Western Civilization, General Chemistry) and allow them opportunity to control the flow of information (e.g., stop, repeat, discuss material before proceeding). SI, and especially VSI, can be very helpful for students with learning disabilities since they can be served inside the same content class rather than requiring an additional class for the students to attend to deal with their specialized learning needs. The LVR/SI approach refines either the SI or VSI model with individualized learning variables and computer technology for application in junior high, senior high, and higher education. Rather than using video tape with VSI, computer technology might be substituted. In addition, the SI leader or VSI facilitator is provided critical information about students with disabilities. This technology-based program allows individuals with learning disabilities to succeed academically in integrated, inclusive classrooms.

Peled, O. N., & Kim, A. C. (1996). Supplemental Instruction in Biology at the college level. Selected Conference Papers of the 19th Annual Conference (pp. 23-24). Chicago, IL: National Association for Developmental Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 394 414)
Supplemental Instruction (SI) in 14 biology classes at National Louis University (Chicago, IL) was found to significantly increase student achievement (74.1 percentile vs. 67.6 percentile for non-SI participants). An additional analysis studied students with low grades (below the 60th percentile) and high grades (above the 80th percentile). SI attendance was positively correlated with higher grades. Many of the SI leaders in biology have been students intending to major in elementary education.

Quinn, K. B. (1990). Retaining undergraduates and training graduates: A variation on Supplemental Instruction in a College Biology class. Selected Conference Abstracts of the 14th Annual Conference of the National Association for Developmental Education (pp. 48-49). Chicago, IL: National Association for Developmental Education. This article described a retention program based on a variation of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model piloted in the Academic Skills Program at the University of Illinois at Chicago. SI leaders were graduate students enrolled in the Masters of Teaching Science program at the university. The intent of the pilot program was not only to increase the academic performance of students and the number of students who completed Biology 102 -- one of the most difficult courses for non-majors at the university -- but also to provide a training experience for graduate students who were going into teaching science in the public schools and the community colleges. Research suggests that freshmen SI participants earned higher mean final course grades (3.23 vs. 2.90). Students who attended SI six or more times during the academic term received no lower than a final course grade of B. There was a positive correlation between SI attendance and higher grades (zero to five point scale): attended one SI session, mean final course grade of 3.16; attended two to five, 3.56; attended six to ten, 4.50; attended eleven to twenty-seven, 4.00.

Rust, C., & Price, M. (1994). Improving students' skills through Supplemental Instruction. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Improving Student Learning (pp. 386-395). Oxford, England: Oxford Centre for Staff Development
Oxford Brookes University in the United Kingdom is using the Supplemental Instruction program in the School of Business. SI was implemented with larger business courses (400 to 500 students) to enhance the learning environment for the students enrolled in these elective courses that are outside their field of study. Rather than paying the SI leaders, they were given academic credit for the experience. The research studies of students enrolled in the targeted courses suggested a positive correlation (p < .05) between SI participation (two or more times) and higher final course grades (Introduction to Business, 61.4 percentile vs. 56.2 percentile for non-SI participants; Managing Concepts, 60.7 vs. 54.6; and Changing Environment of Business, 56.6 vs. 46.2).

Stratton, C. B., Commander, N. E., Callahan, C. A., & Smith, B. D. (1997). From DS to LS: The expansion of an academic preparation program from developmental studies to learning support. Selected Conference Papers of the National Association for Developmental Education, Volume 2 (pp. 42-44). Mobile, AL: University of South Alabama.  With increased emphasis on student retention, a model for expanding academic support through Supplemental Instruction was developed to provide a comprehensive program for a larger population at Georgia State University (Atlanta, GA). Research studies suggested that SI participants earned higher mean final course grades. In addition, students whose predicted success (based on SAT scores and a formula predicting GPA) was low outperformed their peers predicted to be more successful.

Visor, J. N., Johnson, J. J., Schollaet, A. M., Good-Majah, C. A., & Davenport, O. (1995). Supplemental Instruction's impact on affect: A follow-up and expansion. Proceedings from the 20th Annual Conference on Developmental Education (pp. 36-37). Chicago, IL: National Association for Developmental Education.  Following up a previous study (Visor, Johnson, and Cole, 1992), the authors sought to determine whether positive change in certain affective variables was associated with participation in Supplemental Instruction (SI): locus of control, the feeling of being in charge of one's own destiny; self-efficacy, beliefs about one's ability to succeed at a given task; and self-esteem. Students from an introductory psychology course at Illinois State University (Normal, IL) were studied in fall of 1994. Students were divided into three categories of participation: regular participants (4 or more times during the term); occasional participants (1 to 3 times); and nonparticipants. The data suggested the following trends. Among freshmen, regular participants tended to have (a) higher self-esteem than nonparticipants, (b) greater self-efficacy than nonparticipants, and (c) greater internal locus of control than nonparticipants and occasional participants. Among upperclassmen, regular participants tended to have (a) higher self-esteem, (b) greater self-efficacy, and (c) greater internal locus of control than nonparticipants and occasional participants. A causal relationship between SI participation and these affective changes is difficult to empirically establish due to confounding demographic variables.

Webster, T., & Dee, K. C. (1997). Supplemental Instruction benefits students in an introductory engineering course. Proceedings of the Conference on Frontiers in Education (pp. 101-108). Pittsburgh, PA: International Electrical Engineers in Education
This paper describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) during Fall 1996 in Introduction to Engineering Analysis at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, NY). The course is generally taken in the first semester of the freshman year and covers vector mechanics (statics), linear algebra, and computer-based matrix methods for solving engineering problems. Of the students in the class, 23 percent participated in SI sessions. Students who participated in SI earned higher mean final course grades (3.13 vs. 2.67, p < .025), higher rate of A & B final course grades (77% vs. 62%, p < .01) and received a lower rate of D, F or withdrawals (0% vs. 18%, p < .01). There was a positive correlation between higher levels of SI attendance and higher final course grades. All students who attended at least four SI sessions throughout the semester received a final course grade of A or B. A subpopulation of students who were designated as "at-risk" or "high risk" were studied. SI participants earned higher grades their counterparts who did not attend SI sessions (At-risk: 2.60 vs. 2.18; High-risk: 2.38 vs. 1.58; p < .01). The researchers reported that unfortunately half of these students did not participate in any SI sessions. Surveys of students suggested the following improvements for the SI program: hold more sessions during the academic term to help reduce SI session size (mean size = 13); hold SI sessions longer than one hour to provide sufficient time to deal with material; and consider more than one SI leader to allow smaller SI session size. SI leaders provided feedback to the course instructor concerning the comprehension level of students concerning the course material. Instructors used the feedback to modify future course lectures. SI leaders the following benefits of the SI program for themselves: deeper understanding of course material, excelled in other courses since they were reviewing basic concepts in the SI course, developed communication skills, improved teaching skills, and enhanced leadership skills.

Wolfe, R. F. (1988). Supplemental Instruction with mentoring support at Anne Arundel Community College. Proceedings from the 1988 Midwest College Learning Center Association Conference. (pp. 106-108). Midwest College Learning Center Association. Available: ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 413 942
The Supplemental Instruction (SI) program at Anne Arundel Community College (Arnold, MD) was modified to use faculty members as SI supervisors. While this was the initial focus for the faculty members, the mentor role evolved into an opportunity for them to observe colleagues and to grow as teachers. Faculty mentors were placed in classes outside their own discipline. The classroom instructor and faculty mentor would meet periodically to provide feedback to each other and discuss strategies to improve instructional effectiveness.

Worthington, A., Hansen, J., Nightingale, J., & Vine, K. (1997, September). Supplemental Instruction in introductory economics: An evaluation of the University of New England's Peer Assisted Study Scheme (PASS). Australian Economic Papers, 69-80
This articles discusses the use of Peer Assisted Study Scheme (PASS) with approximately 300 students in an Introductory Microeconomics class at the University of New England (Australia) in 1995. PASS is an Australian contextualization of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. After an overview of peer collaborative learning and challenges with student learning in economics courses, the paper shares the results of qualitative and quantitative research. Quantitative data included assessment scores, the final exam results and the responses to a 34 item survey administered to all students in the class. The survey included questions about their experience in the PASS sessions, reasons they did or did not participate in PASS, usefulness of the tests, possible reasons for academic difficulty in the class, and to predict their final grade in the class. Data were analyzed using Item Response Theory and multiple linear regression techniques. Qualitative data were collected by the PASS coordinator from weekly written reports of the PASS facilitators, PASS session observations, and in-depth interviews. About one-third of the students participated in SI. Of these students, more than 50 percent attended more than half of the available sessions during the academic term. The PASS participants listed either "to improve understanding" or "to gain additional information" as the top reason for attending the sessions. Only five percent listed "to learn study skills" as the top reason. Only 22 percent of the nonparticipants said that they had no desire to attend or thought they were unnecessary. The most common reason not to attend related to insufficient time. It appears that the SI programs is directly beneficial to the SI participants and indirectly beneficial to non-SI participants since the program influenced the teaching staff to increase student learning. Before introduction of PASS, the failure rate in the course was 33 percent. Following the introduction of PASS, the failure rates have dropped to 18 percent. Through weekly feedback from the PASS facilitator, the class lecturer reported that he intentionally modified the lecture content and his lecturing style. One change was that the lecturer reduced the volume of information delivered so that more time could be spent on improving student understanding of critical concepts.

Worthington, A., Hansen, J., Nightingale, J., & Vine, K. (1995). Peer teaching and introductory economics: An application using the Peer Assisted Study Scheme (PASS) at the University of New England. Conference Proceedings of the Australian Economics Education Symposium in conjunction with the 24th Conference of Economists (pp. 22-38). Adelaide, South Australia, Australia: Australian Economics Education Symposium.
This paper discusses the use of Peer Assisted Study Scheme (PASS) with approximately 300 students in an Introductory Microeconomics class at the University of New England (Australia) in 1995. PASS is an Australian contextualization of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. After an overview of peer collaborative learning and challenges with student learning in economics courses, the paper shares the results of qualitative and quantitative research. Quantitative data included assessment scores, the final exam results and the responses to a 34 item survey administered to all students in the class. The survey included questions about their experience in the PASS sessions, reasons they did or did not participate in PASS, usefulness of the tests, possible reasons for academic difficulty in the class, and to predict their final grade in the class. Data were analyzed using Item Response Theory and multiple linear regression techniques. Qualitative data were collected by the PASS coordinator from weekly written reports of the PASS facilitators, PASS session observations, and in-depth interviews. About one-third of the students participated in SI. Of these students, more than 50 percent attended more than half of the available sessions during the academic term. The PASS participants listed either "to improve understanding" or "to gain additional information" as the top reason for attending the sessions. Only five percent listed "to learn study skills" as the top reason. Only 22 percent of the nonparticipants said that they had no desire to attend or thought they were unnecessary. The most common reason not to attend related to insufficient time. It appears that the SI programs is directly beneficial to the SI participants and indirectly beneficial to non-SI participants since the program influenced the teaching staff to increase student learning. Before introduction of PASS, the failure rate in the course was 33 percent. Following the introduction of PASS, the failure rates have dropped to 18 percent. Through weekly feedback from the PASS facilitator, the class lecturer reported that he intentionally modified the lecture content and his lecturing style. One change was that the lecturer reduced the volume of information delivered so that more time could be spent on improving student understanding of critical concepts.

Yates, J., Gill, F., & Webb, C. (1995). Peer mentoring to facilitate learning in economics. In Australian Economics Education Symposium Proceedings: Addendum (pp. 40-56). Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
This paper describes and provides a preliminary evaluation of Supplemental Instruction (SI) used at the University of Sydney (Australia) in an economics course during 1995. Three quarters of the SI leaders listed the following benefits of involvement with the program: improved teaching skills; improved leadership skills; increased confidence; and/or a change in the way they thought about economics.

 



 

Section Eight: Unpublished Manuscripts

Ahrens, R., George, B., Henderson, A., Marhinin, N., Power, D., Rae, M., Watters, J. J., & Ginns, I. S. (1996). Students helping students: Peer Assisted Study Sessions for students enrolled in a science content subject. Paper presented at the 2nd State Conference of HERDSA Inc., April 13-14, 1996, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia.
The Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) program, based upon the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program, was used at the Queensland University of Technology (Brisbane, Australia) in the Center for Mathematics and Science Education. Students enrolled in the Primary and Early Childhood area of a Bachelor of Education degree must take Science Foundations (MDB303) in their first year. The formal science backgrounds of many students enrolled in this class are inadequate. This study examined students enrolled in the class during 1995. The PASS group received higher final course grades (4.88 vs. 4.15, 0 to 7 scale) than the non-PASS participants. Qualitative research through student interviews and analysis of surveys suggested improvement gains for the PASS group as well.

Ainsworth, L., Garnett, D., Phelps, D., Shannon, S., & Ripperger-Suhler, K. (1994). Mathematics: Needs and approaches using Supplemental Instruction. Unpublished manuscript, Texas Tech University at Lubbock.
This paper discusses the implementation of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at Texas Tech University (Lubbock, TX) with courses in mathematics. After a review of the literature regarding the challenges with academic achievement for students in mathematics, the authors provide suggestions on how to successfully implement a SI program: focusing on problem-solving activities in the SI sessions that clearly illustrate the protocols to solve the problems rather than focusing just on finding the correct answer; providing more structure to SI sessions in math in comparison with SI sessions in other academic disciplines; and working on developing correct use of math vocabulary.

Andersson, A. (1996). Supplemental Instruction in Mechanics A. Unpublished manuscript, The Lund Institute of Technology at Lund, Sweden.
This report describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in the Mechanics A course during spring of 1996 in the School of Mechanical Engineering at the Lund Institute of Technology (Sweden). The author was the SI leader for the course. The report provides a description of events that occurred during the SI sessions throughout the academic term. Suggestions from the SI leader included: be careful to schedule SI sessions at times of highest interest for the students; keep to time commitments when to start and finish SI sessions since students may have other appointments following the sessions; divide the SI participants into smaller groups so maximize student discussions; and make sure that the SI leader has a plan before the beginning of the session to provide structure.

Arendale, D. (Ed.). (1999). Annotated Bibliography of Supplemental Instruction and Video-Based Supplemental Instruction. Unpublished manuscript, Center for Supplemental Instruction, University of Missouri-Kansas City.
This annotated bibliography contains all known Supplemental Instruction and Video-based Supplemental Instruction documents and resources. It has more than 450 entries in the following categories: dissertations and thesis papers; books, chapters, and monographs; journal articles; audio and videotapes; newsletter articles; ERIC documents; published conference proceedings; unpublished manuscripts; Internet resources; newspaper and magazine press coverage.

Arendale, D. (1993). Fostering multicultural education with a learning assistance model that works: Supplemental Instruction. Unpublished manuscript, The University of Missouri-Kansas City.
This paper describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) to serve as a part of a campus multicultural education program. Since the primary focus of SI sessions is on the academic content, the sessions attract students of different ethnicities and cultures who share a common concern for improving their personal academic performance in the course. Cultural differences naturally emerge as students deal with the common academic task and they share their perspectives concerning the academic material from their personal and cultural point of view. The small group allows students to see a multiplicity of realities concerning the academic content. Some researchers argue that collaborative learning environments -- such as provided through SI sessions -- are more conducive for learning of students from diverse cultures. This is because some are field sensitive learners and find the traditional classroom environment of abstract learning unhelpful and find opportunity during SI sessions to make connections between the course material and their personal frame of reference. Included in the article is a research study directed by May Garland and partially funded by the National Association for Developmental Education. The study included 3 institutions across the U.S. regarding academic performance of students separated by ethnicity. Students of color participated at rates equal to or exceeded rates of White students in SI sessions. Students of color who participated in SI received mean higher final course grades than students of color who chose not to participate. The results were the same regardless whether the group was all students, top quartile, and bottom quartile.

Arendale, D. (1996). Frontloaded academic support: Supplemental Instruction in two-year colleges. Unpublished manuscript, The University of Missouri-Kansas City.
This paper describes the role of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in providing academic support for new students in two-year colleges. Included are both interviews with campus SI Supervisors at two-year institutions across the U.S. and a data study of SI at 59 two-year public institutions that offered SI in 480 courses with an enrollment of 23,979 students. The data suggests that SI participants earn a final course grade that is half a letter grade higher than non-participants. In addition to examining the data in aggregate, similar findings occur when the data is separated by academic disciplines.

Arendale, D. (1999). Suggestions for improving attendance in Supplemental Instruction sessions. Unpublished manuscript, The University of Missouri-Kansas City.
This paper is a collection of suggestions developed at the University of Missouri-Kansas City and others in the field on how to increase attendance by students at Supplemental Instruction (SI) sessions. Because of the voluntary nature of SI attendance outside of course lectures, the issue of SI session attendance will be a continuing issue. A variety of factors can influence attendance. The paper provides 27 suggestions for: activities before the beginning of the term by the SI supervisor; activities by the course professor during the term; activities by the SI leader during the term; activities by the SI supervisor during the term; and activities by the SI supervisor after the academic term. It is critical that students see the relevance and connection between the activities that occur during SI sessions and what occurs during the professor's lectures.

Bartlett, G., Terblanche, N., & Eastmond, J. N. (1996). The politics and process of student involvement in a programme of Supplemental Instruction. Paper presented at the South African Association for Academic Development Conference, University of Fort Hare, Republic of South Africa. 
This paper recounts the steps (and missteps) taken in beginning an Supplemental Instruction (SI) program in two academic departments at Border Technikon (South Africa): Accounting and Management. It documents the steps taken to draw upon the resources of the Student Representative Council (SRC) in setting policy, selecting tutors, and maintaining the program's funding base. The authors advocate that SI program success is dependent upon a partnership with faculty and students sharing a stake in the outcomes. The SRC representatives advocated that all students should be eligible for consideration as SI leaders. Their view was that even academically weaker students could be helpful since they understood the challenges in the course and could help others. Also, the SRC viewed SI as a service for students and that volunteers should be solicited. In both cases, the compromise was that all students were eligible for the SI leader position however it was felt that the SI leader should be compensated for the large time commitment required. Interviews with SI leaders suggested the following benefits: increased confidence with public speaking; more interaction with course faculty; development of teaching skills; and improved personal study strategies. Interviews with SI participants suggested improved: better understanding of course material; opportunity to practice academic skills; freedom to discuss material in the smaller, relaxed SI session environment; and higher test scores.

Botha, L., Van der Merwe, A., & De Klerk, E. (1996). Tutor programme vs. Supplemental Instruction at the University of Stellenbosch. Paper presented at the South African Association for Academic Development Conference, University of Fort Hare, Republic of South Africa.
The Division of Academic Programmes (DADP) at the University of Stellenbosch (South Africa) runs academic development programs serving the twelve faculties of the University. Both a traditional tutor program and Supplemental Instruction (SI) was provided as support and enrichment for the students. At the time of this paper's publication, quantitative data was not available for summative evaluation and comparison of the two approaches to academic assistance. Interviews with students suggested high satisfaction with the SI program for several reasons: high motivation level of SI leaders; opportunity to work on writing effective summaries during SI sessions; developing understanding of basic concepts and subject specific terminology; development of study strategies; and improved skills for completing essay examination questions.

Boylan, H. R. (Ed.). (1996). An evaluation of the Texas Academic Skills Program (TASP). Unpublished manuscript, The National Center for Developmental Education, Boone, NC.
Under contract with the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB), the National Center for Developmental Education conducted an extensive review of the Texas Academic Skills Program (TASP) from April through September of 1996. The site team of eight consultants conducted site visits to 20 Texas colleges and reviewed survey data from 96 institutions. The report provided recommendations for improvement of TASP. The team found that institutional procedures generally do not emphasize getting students through remediation as quickly and efficiently as possible. Instead, these procedures are designed to insure that students are engaged in continuous remediation until such time as they pass all sections of the TASP Test in compliance with state law. Recommendation #19 recommends that Texas institutions establish timely completion of remediation as a priority and they document specific efforts undertaken to reduce the amount of time TASP students spend in remediation. A noncourse program that can help achieve the aforementioned objective is discussed in Recommendation #20. That recommendation states that Texas institutions which have not done so already consider adoption of Supplemental Instruction (SI) to help students succeed in historically difficult courses that are often encountered in the first year curriculum. This noncourse academic support program could assist a number of students without the need for enrollment in remedial courses.

Boylan, H. R., Bonham, B. S., & Bliss, L. B. (1992). National study of developmental education: Students, programs and institutions of higher education. Unpublished manuscript, Boone, NC: National Center for Developmental Education.
Through a grant from the EXXON Education Foundation, the National Center for Developmental Education conducted the most extensive study of developmental education. The 1989 to 1992 study included 116 institutions representing a wide diversity of types. More than 6,000 students were subjects of the longitudinal study. The purpose of the study was to determine what is actually done in developmental education, to explore whether or not developmental programs actually contribute to student success, and, if so, to identify what types of programs and services have the greatest impact upon student success. Among the list of instructional factors related to student success, Supplemental Instruction (SI) is one of the items. Other items listed were: mastery level performance, frequent testing, immediate feedback, required remediation, individualized instruction, lab activities, integrated teaching of critical thinking skills, and close proximity of classrooms and support services.

Brazelton, W., Schmidtlein, P., & Baugher, M. (1981, October). Reducing student attrition in the first-year economics course through skill-based Supplemental Instruction. Paper presented at the University of Missouri Economics Conference, Columbia, MO.
This paper discusses the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) to improve student academic performance in introductory college-level economics courses at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. Data suggests that SI participants receive higher mean final course grades (66.6% A and B final course grades for SI participants vs. 45.6% for non-SI participants) and a lower rate of D, F or course withdrawals (14.8% vs. 21.1%). The total percent of unsuccessful enrollments (D, F or course withdrawal) for the course was reduced from 34 percent before the introduction of SI to 19 percent during the second year that SI was offered to the students in the course.

Christie, R., & Cheah, S. (1995). Support structures for students in information technology at Queensland University of Technology. Unpublished manuscript, Queensland University of Technology at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
This paper describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at the Queensland University of Technology (Australia) in information technology courses. Based on qualitative research studies, the following results occurred: 1) SI participants: were appreciative of opportunity to share their academic problems and doubts with someone who had successfully completed the course; 2) SI leaders: improved their skills in leadership, interpersonal communication, problem solving, study and time management; and 3) course instructors: improved their teaching by receiving timely feedback from the students. There was a positive correlation between higher levels of SI attendance and receiving high marks (6 or 7) in the course.

Clark, C. (1997). Report by the National Centre for Supplemental Instruction Southern Africa at the University of Port Elizabeth fro the Department of Academic Development at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. Unpublished Manuscript, University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth, Republic of South Africa.
This paper describes results from the 1997 Supplemental Instruction (SI) national South Africa survey. Currently 53 tertiary institutions comprising more than 140 faculty and staff members have been trained in use of SI by the Southern African Center for SI based at the University of Port Elizabeth (UPE) in the Republic of South Africa. Continuing technical assistance and professional development trainings are offered by the National Center at UPE for institutions with SI programs.

Clark, C., & Brophy, B. (1995). Student perceptions of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) programme at the University of Port Elizabeth. Paper presented at the South African Association for Academic Development Conference, Technikon Free State, Republic of South Africa. 
This paper describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at the University of Port Elizabeth (South Africa). A questionnaire investiaged the attitudes of: attenders and non-attenders, regular and irregular attenders, prepared and underprepared students, humanities and science students, and finally, pass and failures. This paper focuses on prepared and underprepared students. The underprepared students often only attended SI when they had problems in the course. As a group that studied by themselves. The more prepared students found the SI sessions useful due to the use of collaborative learning techniques.

Clark, C., & Mallon, P. (1998). Supplemental Instruction as a tool to improve student success at South African tertiary institutions. Unpublished manuscript, University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth, Republic of South Africa. 
This unpublished manuscript describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) with students at the University of Port Elizabeth (UPE) and other institutions in the Republic of South Africa. UPE was selected by UMKC to serve as the training and technical assistance center for Africa. To date national trainings have been conducted 14 times with 140 faculty and staff members from 53 tertiary institutions in South Africa. This paper describes the historical development of SI with Historic Black Universities, Historic White Universities, and Technikons/Colleges. Often the SI program is located within the academic development unit. It is common that SI programs have been introduced to redress inequalities in academic preparation by the newly admitted students from widely diverse ethnic backgrounds and academic preparation levels.

Congos, D. H. (1997). Supplemental Instruction models for introductory chemistry and physics. Manuscript submitted for publication, Central Piedmont Community College at Charlotte, NC.   This paper provides several models for Supplemental Instruction (SI) leaders to use when facilitating sessions in introductory chemistry and physics courses. Problem-solving activities are essential for students enrolled in these courses since many of them are unable to recognize problem patterns and the needed procedures to solve them. In chemistry the following seven steps often are needed: 1) read the problem; 2) rewrite the problem in students' own words; 3) write down what the student is trying to find; 4) list the tools that are given for solving the problem; 5) do factor labeling; 6) check the answer in the book for correctness; 7) if the students' answer is incorrect, return to step #3.

Couchman, J. (1997). Report on the pilot study of the Supplemental Instruction program: 51002 Introduction to Accounting. Unpublished manuscript, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia. 
A 1997 research study at the University of Southern Queensland (Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia) involved all enrolled students in Introduction to Accounting (51002). By use of the external student cohort as a control group, it was claimed by the researchers that Supplemental Instruction resulted in a positive impact on the overall pass rate for the unit, raising it from 39% in 1996 to 55% in 1997. SI participants averaged 1.15 of a grade point higher on a 7 GPA scale than non-participants. SI participants were: only one-third as likely to fail; nearly four times more likely to gain an HD, approximately equally likely to gain an A grade; over twice as likely to gain a B grade; and three-quarters as likely to gain a C grade than non-participants. When examining a subpopulation of international students, they had a 78% pass rate compared with 48% for those international students who did not participate.

Couchman, J., & Pigozzo, R. (1997). Report on the Supplemental Instruction program: 51008 Economics. Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia: Unpublished manuscript, University of Southern Queensland. 
This 1997 Supplemental Instruction (SI) study was conducted at the University of Southern Queensland (Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia) in the 51008 Economics course. SI participants averaged 0.83 of a grade point higher on a 7 GPA scale than non-participants. The results suggested that only one-fifth of SI participants were likely to fail; one-third more likely to gain an HD, two and a half times more likely to gain an A grade; twice as likely to gain a B grade; and over one and a half times as likely to gain a C grade than non-participants. International students who attended SI sessions regularly had a 93% pass rate compared with 63% for those international students who chose not to attend regularly.

Davies, E., & Vorster, J. (1994). The SI leader as a teaching resource. Paper presented at the South African Association for Academic Development Conference, University of Natal, Republic of South Africa. 
In 1994 a Supplemental Instruction (SI) program was introduced in the Law Faculty at Rhodes University (South Africa). Two courses were initially selected for a pilot program: Legal Theory I and Commercial Law I with joint funding from the Academic Development Program and the Law School. Interviews with students suggested that the SI leader empowered the students to be more active in their own learning process and take additional responsibility for mastery of content mastery rather than being passive in the classroom. The SI activities were more student controlled while the formal tutorial program was viewed as more rigid and prescriptive.

Emal, C., Johnson, T., & Kelter, P. B. (1997). Supplemental Instruction: A model program that goes against the grain. Manuscript submitted for publication, University of Nebraska at Lincoln.
This report examines the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at the University of Nebraska (Lincoln, NE). After an initial overview of the SI model, the paper reports on a study of the use of SI in multiple sections of Chemistry 109 (1,100 to 1,300 students total) over a period of five academic terms (Fall 1994 through Fall 1996). The SI participants earned a mean final course grade of 2.70 vs. 2.12 for the nonparticipants. The SI participants received a much lower rate of D, F and withdrawal grades (17.2 percent) when compared with the nonparticipants (42.9 percent). There was a positive correlation between increased attendance at SI sessions with higher mean final course grades. A further analysis of students was accomplished by dividing them into quartile groups on the basis of their standardized college entrance scores (ACT). Whether it was the top (3.18 vs. 2.53), bottom (1.97 vs. 1.68) or middle quartile groups (2.60 vs. 2.04) the SI participants received approximately a mean final course grade that was half a letter grade higher It appears that SI was equally attractive to all students since approximately the same percent of students attended SI from each of the quartile groups (18 to 20 percent).

Frans, P. (1997). The development of Supplemental Instruction facilitators as skilled and confident leaders. Paper presented at the South African Association for Academic Development Conference, Broederstroom, Republic of South Africa. 
This paper describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at Vista University-Mamelodi Campus (South Africa). In addition to fulfilling traditional SI program objectives, additional ones were a focus of this contextualization: providing feedback to the lecturer concerning student comprehension, thereby providing an opportunity to revise content delivery; give opportunity for students to use their first language rather than having all conversation occur in English; providing another venue for faculty development; and ensuring that all stakeholders -- students, course lecturer, SI Supervisor, and SI leaders -- work together to evaluate the SI program.

Frans, P. (1998). Evaluation of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) programme implemented at a historically disadvantaged university. Paper presented at the South African Association for Academic Development Conference, Bloemfontein, Republic of South Africa.

Gardiner, R. (1997). Comparison of costs and financial benefits of a Supplemental Instruction program. Unpublished manuscript, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. For further information please contact: Emeritus Professor R B Gardiner, Ph.D., SI/PASS Program Coordinator, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434 , Brisbane 4001, Australia, Tel: +61 (0)7 3864 2927, Fax: +61 (0)7 3864 1815, E-mail: rb.gardiner@qut.edu.au.
This paper describes the benefits of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program in terms of educational outcomes and financial benefits. The costs and benefits are based on implementation at higher educational institutions in Australia. Based on higher reenrollment rates of SI participants, the SI program increases revenue through savings from lost student fees and tuition. Preliminary data from Queensland University of Technology in Civil Engineering suggest an increase in 15 percentage points for reenrollment of SI participants. However, the financial equation model described in this paper is very conservative and only estimates a difference of 5 percentage points.

Garland, M., & Gordy, K. (1987). Supplemental Instruction in the context of critical thinking. Unpublished manuscript, The University of Missouri-Kansas City.  This manuscript describes how the Supplemental Instruction program can be used to promote critical thinking skills of students. This goal is supported through SI session activities. Independent thought is fostered through session strategies that require students to work privately before group discussions are facilitated. Creating a learning environment in SI sessions where students feel comfortable to talk promotes active learning and vocalizing of ideas. A third component needed by critical thinking proponents is "reflection" when students begin to understand their own thinking processes. SI sessions focus not only on the course content, but also on the process of learning and thinking about it. The SI leader vocalizes when they are thinking about as they consider the material and solving the problems. SI participants are also encouraged to vocalize their thinking process and their uncertainties as well.

Ginns, I. S., & Watters, J. J. (1995). Final Report of Peer Assisted Study Sessions in Science Foundations MDB303. Unpublished manuscript, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. 
This report describes the use of Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) with students at Queensland University of Technology (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia). PASS is the term used at the institution for Supplemental Instruction (SI). Students enrolled in the Primary and Early Childhood strands of the preservice Bachelor of Education program are required to undertake basic studies of science in their first year. This core unit (Science Foundations - MDB303) was the course proposed for PASS. The performance of the students were examined on a 1 to 7 scale (1 to 3=fail, 4=pass, 5=credit, 6=distinction, 7=high distinction). The PASS group earned a statistically significant (p < .01) higher mean final course grade of 4.88 as compared with 4.15 for the non-participants. No PASS participants earned a failing grade while 8 of the non-participants did so. The PASS group earned grades of distinction or high distinction 66 percent of the time compared with 28 percent for the non-participants. Interviews with PASS participants identified the following changes: more thorough understanding of scientific concepts; identified ways of engaging the course content; study methods improved; established more consistent study times; attitudes towards science improved; and overall confidence increased. PASS leaders mentioned the following changes for themselves: increased confidence in teaching skills; enjoyed working in groups.

Gordy, Z. K., & Garland, M. (1987). Improving college-level thinking through Supplemental Instruction. Unpublished manuscript, The University of Missouri-Kansas City.  The authors describe the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) to increase the level of thinking by college students. Since SI sessions incorporate a reflective approach to learning, the SI leader creates an environment for students to increase their level of critical thinking. Not only do the SI sessions focus on review of course content, but also through active discussions, students become more aware of their own thinking process.

Heerspink, J. B. (1997). The use of spatial representation in history courses and in courses with historical content. Unpublished manuscript, Calvin College at Grand Rapids, MI. A Students who learn to represent historical information spatially will find their learning to be both more complete and more efficient. The Supplemental Instruction (SI) leader has a significant role to play in bringing experience in learning history and in the use of learning strategies in the SI sessions. Five typical spatial representation patterns of learning in history courses include: sequence, parts/types/lists, compare/contrast, cause and effect, PERSIA (political, economic, religious, social, intellectual, and/or artistic factors). The author is the tutor coordinator at Calvin College (Grand Rapids, MI).

Irwin, D., & Risser, B. (1988). Supplemental Instruction-Plus: Levels of academic support at the community college. Unpublished manuscript, Onondaga Community College at Syracuse, NY.  Traditional support programs at community colleges focus a great deal of attention on meeting the needs of developmental students. Supplemental Instruction PLUS (SI+) builds on that model to provide several levels of academic support all students as they are challenged. SI+ was developed at Onondaga Community College in Syracuse, NY and is a variation of the traditional SI program. However, SI+ groups have a slightly different focus since SI+ is meant to help students adjust to the demands of college courses after they have completed a sequence of developmental courses. The courses targeted by SI+ are not historically difficult and requiring the intensity of a full SI program. While the study sessions appear similar to traditional SI, SI+ leaders do not attend the course professors lectures. The SI+ leader still models effective study behavior. To keep pace with the course, the SI+ leader meets weekly with the course professor. It is anticipated that students will participate in traditional SI program when they encounter historically difficult courses in succeeding academic terms. The final stage for the SI+ program is for students to create independent study groups in other courses where SI+ and traditional SI sessions are not offered.

Kelly, B. A. (1991). Selection of leaders to facilitate Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS). Unpublished manuscript, University of Queensland, Australia.
This article describes the selection procedures for Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) leaders. PASS is a locally used name at Queensland Institute of Technology and the University of Queensland in Australia for the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. Several suggestions include distributing leaflets and encouraging former PASS participants to apply as leaders. Group interviews are used to same time and to make students feel more at ease during the interview process. To meet the need for the program to fit the institutions use of Total Quality Management (TQM), PASS leaders were asked to complete a questionnaire at the end of their PASS sessions and to maintain a diary of session activities. This information was used to improved the PASS program and provide helpful feedback to the course instructors.

Kelly, B. A. (1992). And it came to PASS: Peer Assisted Study Sessions. Unpublished manuscript, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. 
This paper discusses the development of the Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) program at Queensland University of Technology (Brisbane, Australia). PASS is based upon the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model. The program was piloted in two classes in Anatomy for Nursing and Statistics for Information Technology. Research results indicated a lower rate of withdrawal and higher final course grades for participants.

Kelly, B. A., & Gardiner, R. (1994). Student peer mentoring: An effective strategy to promote student learning. Paper presented at the HERDSA Annual Conference, July 6-10, 1994, 1996:
The Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) program is based upon the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program developed in the U.S. PASS was used at the Queensland University of Technology (Brisbane, Australia). A pilot program was carried out in 1992. Since then, the SI program has spread to seven disciplines in five faculties, and has attracted four 1994 CAUT grants.

Kelter, P. B., & Carr, J. D. (1996). Personalizing the large general chemistry lecture experience. Unpublished manuscript, The University of Nebraska at Lincoln.
This report that includes information about the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) was published online in connection with New Initiatives in Chemical Education, an on-line symposium, June 3 to July 19, 1996. SI was selected since it helps to provide a support structure to help individuals in the large class sections of Chemistry 109 and 110. Data from Fall 1995 showed that SI participants received a higher final course grade (2.80 vs. 1.99), a higher rate of A and B final course grades (53.1% vs. 34.9%), a lower rate of D and F final course grades (13.6% vs. 39.4%). Data suggests what when students are classified on the basis of ACT quartile scores, those who participated in the SI sessions receive a considerably higher grade in Chem 109 that those who did not if they had higher ACT scores (top quartile: SI, 3.18 vs. 2.53 non-SI; middle two quartiles: 2.60 vs. 2.04; bottom quartile: 1.97 vs. 1.68).

Kenney, P. A. (1990, April). Effects of Supplemental Instruction on student performance in a college-level mathematics course: A report of additional results. Paper presented at the 1990 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston, MA. 
This paper details additional results from an experiment on the effects of Supplemental Instruction (SI) on student performance in a college business calculus course. The paper is a continuation of research first reported at the 1989 AERA Annual Meeting. SI participants who withdrew from the course most often cited their perceived lack of prerequisite skills or to problems with calculus concepts. The author postulates that the exposure to SI raised their awareness of their lack of skills. Non-SI participants who withdrew from the course most often cited "personal" reasons. Of the 26 students who failed or withdrew from the original calculus course, former SI participants were more likely to immediately reenroll in the course (six students) than the non-SI participants (one student). Another study focused on the academic performance of SI and non-SI participants in a succeeding academic term in courses where SI was not offered. Former SI participants earned no F grades or withdrew from the second-semester business calculus course. The former SI participants earned a slightly higher mean final course grade (2.63 vs. 2.48), though it was not a statistically significant difference. The author speculates that the absence of SI with the second calculus course may had a bigger impact on former SI participants -- narrowing the positive difference in academic achievement with the control group -- since a support service which they were used to accessing was not available in the next course in the sequence.

Kenney, P. A. (1990). Suggestions for mathematics Supplemental Instruction sessions. Unpublished manuscript, Pennsylvania State University at College Park.  This paper was developed to accompany a videotape that provides suggestions for strategies to use during Supplemental Instruction (SI) sessions. These suggestions are based upon direct experience while serving as a SI leader in a calculus course at the University of Texas at Austin while she was completing here Ph.D. on the effectiveness of SI. Some of the suggestions included: constantly referring to the course syllabus throughout the academic term; discussing effective note taking in math classes by the SI leader sharing their strategy; discussing ways to maximize the usefulness of the textbook; providing additional structure to the SI sessions; focuses on the problem-solving protocols rather than on just finding correct answers; SI leader providing worksheets to guide SI sessions that help generate group discussion, focus on key concepts, help review for exams, and practice problem-solving skills; test question prediction; and taking practice exams to prepare for in class examinations.

Kenney, P. A. (1997). Supplemental Instruction in mathematics: Needs and approaches, critical aspects of mathematics training and the role of SI. Unpublished manuscript, Pennsylvania State University at College Park.
Mathematics presents a challenge to many students in higher education. This paper describes some of these challenges and two approaches to Supplemental Instruction (SI) that may help students. Critical components of math SI sessions: 1) a welcome period during which the glossary terms and protocols are discussed; 2) a period during which students use the protocols to solve problems similar to the homework; and 3) a period during which students may attempt some homework problems.

Kenney, P. A., & Kallison, J. M. (1992). Learning to study college-level mathematics: Effects of a Supplemental Instruction (SI) program in first-semester calculus courses. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association 1992 Annual Conference, San Francisco, CA. 
This paper details results from a Supplemental Instruction program designed for students in college-level calculus courses during Fall 1989. The studies were conducted at the University of Texas at Austin by two teaching assistants employed by the mathematics department and were selected and trained by the SI program by the staff of the University's Learning Skills Center. The first study compared the performance of students in Business Calculus. While SI was beneficial to all SI participants (2.39 vs. 1.96 for non-SI participants), it was especially helpful for lower-ability students. The second study focused on an Engineering Calculus course. While the difference was closer for the two groups (2.01 vs. 1.91 for non-SI participants), SI provided disproportionate help to the lower-ability students as measured by SAT quantitative scores. More than 70 percent of students felt that the study strategies introduced by the SI leaders were either "very helpful" or "helpful." Almost 80 percent indicated that exposure to study strategies for calculus changed the way they studied either "very much" or "somewhat," and that the techniques that these skills would help them in future courses either "very much" or "somewhat." More than 80 percent of the students responded that it was either "very important" or "important" that all SI leaders incorporate study strategies into discussion sections. SI leaders mentioned the positive impact of the SI program on themselves as well: reflect about their teaching methods; develop new teaching methods; and learned how to integrate learning strategies with content instruction.

Kernick, G., Kedian, J., Seneque, M., & Louw, R. (1993). Supplemental Instruction: Toward a conceptual framework. Paper presented at the South African Association for Academic Development Annual Conference, University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
Many academic leaders at postsecondary institutions in South Africa report that many students lack the necessary skills to become successful autonomous learners. Supplemental Instruction (SI) is being used to help students develop these skills outside of class since the traditional passive lecture-based educational delivery system will be slow to change. SI is differentiated from traditional tutorial sessions since in SI it is learner-controlled.

Koch, E., & Snyders, M. (1997). The effect of Video Supplemental Instruction on the academic performance in mathematics of disadvantaged students. Unpublished manuscript, University of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. 
This paper examines the effect of Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI) on the mathematics performance of students whose matric marks did not enable them to be directly admitted to the Science Faculty at the University Port Elizabeth (South Africa). These students were enrolled in Ethembeni Community College in Port Elizabeth which serves as a preparation area before admission to UPE. Fifteen students who enrolled in VSI math were matched with 14 students enrolled in a similar math course that required attendance at Supplemental Instruction (SI) sessions. Research suggests that VSI was a more useful instructional delivery system for students with a minimum level of pre-knowledge in mathematics and who study in a consistent and responsible manner. In addition, the researchers suggested the usefulness of VSI in distance learning venues where experienced and trained faculty members are unavailable to deliver live instruction.

Koch, E., & Snyders, M. (1998). The effect of Video Supplemental Instruciton on performance in mathematics in the second semester mathematics special course. Unpublished manuscript, University of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. 
This paper examines the effect of Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI) in the second semester mathematics course which enrolled students from Ethembeni Community College in Port Elizabeth which serves as a preparation before admission to the University of Port Elizabeth (South Africa). Students who enrolled in VSI math were matched with students enrolled in a similar math course that required attendance at Supplemental Instruction (SI) sessions. Research suggests that VSI was a more useful instructional delivery system for students with a minimum level of pre-knowledge in mathematics and who study in a consistent and responsible manner.

Loh, H. (1992). Peer Assisted Study Sessions for LSB181, Anatomy for the Nursing Students, 1992. Unpublished manuscript, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. 
This report discusses the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI), which is called Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) at the local institution with nursing students enrolled in a anatomy course. Approximately half the students attended the SI sessions during the academic term. The program reduced the failure rate of students (7.8% vs. 19.1%), increased the percent of students receiving high marks (5, 6 or 7 on a scale of 0-7), and improved the mode and mean final course grade.

Loh, H. (1997). Multidisciplinary peer collaborative study programs for first year Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. Unpublished manuscript, Queensland University of Technology at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. 
This report describes the use in 1995 of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at Queensland University of Technology (Australia) with first year Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (A&TSI) students. Many of these students began postsecondary education with high anxiety (79% student response), low to medium confidence in passing their courses, limited knowledge of study skills, and high to moderate difficulty levels within their respective subjects. A&TSI students had an attrition rate nearly double other students at QUT (32.7% vs. 18.4%). About half the A&TSI students participated in the SI program. Using a four point scale (greatly, moderately, slightly, not at all), data obtained from end of academic term student surveys of SI participants suggests that SI: was helpful for increased learning (70% of students selected "greatly"), lowered anxiety levels (45% greatly and 45% moderately), increased confidence levels (50% greatly, 50% moderately), improved enthusiasm and motivation to perform better (45% greatly, 45% moderately), and helped to create a favorable environment supporting learning (100% greatly). SI participant grades were evaluated on a seven point scale: fail, one to three; pass, 4; credit, 5; distinction, 6; high distinction, 7. When analyzing the grade distribution for all A&TSI students, 22.9% of SI participants earned grades of 6 or 7 as compared with 0% for the non-SI. When examining the failing grades (1, 2 or 3) the SI group had a dramatically lower rate (22.8%) when compared with the non-SI group (78.3%). SI leaders reported that their participation in the program led to the following outcomes: developed facilitation and group organizational skills; improved confidence and self esteem; and developed their own learning skills.

Loh, H., & Kelly, B. A. (1994). Supplemental Instruction (SI) in anatomy for first year nursing students. Unpublished manuscript, The Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
This paper describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) since 1992 with nursing students at the Queensland University of Technology (Australia) in an anatomy course (LSB 181). At QUT, SI is known as PASS (Peer Assisted Study Sessions). The SI modeled was contextualized in several ways: two SI leaders facilitated each group, allowing for larger numbers to attend each SI session; principles of Total Quality Management were employed to use SI as a feedback loop between the students and the lecturer, thereby providing data to the instructor to allow for immediate changes in the content and delivery. Data from 1992 through 1995 suggest substantial benefits of the SI program to students, SI leaders and the course instructor. The performance of the students were examined on a 3 to 7 scale (3=fail, 4=pass, 5=credit, 6=distinction, 7=high distinction). SI participant interviews and 1995 survey data suggested agreement with the following statements regarding the impact of SI: increased confidence levels (87.0%), lowered anxiety levels (61.5%), higher motivation to achieve grades of distinction (84.6%), and developed new study skills (70.3%). Based on data from 1992 in the anatomy course, the SI participants achieved significantly (p < .01) higher levels of academic achievement. In comparison with non-SI participants, there were more grades of level 6 or 7 (39% vs. 27%) and less grades of level 3 (10% vs. 25%). When comparing failure rates, the results favored the SI participants. SI participants in 1995 failed the class at a rate of 2.7% while the non-SI group failed the class at a higher rate of 13.3%. To investigate the possible impact of student motivation, the failure rate of students who desired to participate in SI but were unable to attend due to time conflicts failed at nearly the same rate (12.7%) as the entire non-SI group (13.3%). This appears to support the conclusion that student motivation was not the major variable impacting student academic performance. The overall class average (including all SI and non-SI participants) for grades of level 3 (failure) were reduced from 22.8% before the introduction of SI down to 7.1% after the fourth year of SI. SI leaders reported the following positive results: developed leadership skills; improved their facilitation skills; improved their study skills; acquired group management skills; and increased their own confidence and self esteem. Instructors who had SI attached to their course reported the following positive results: rapid dissemination of information and instructions to the SI participants; provided benefits of small group instruction within the large lecture sections ( n = 400); instructors received feedback from students which allowed them to "fine-tune" teaching and improve teaching performance; involvement with the SI program provided new avenues for grants; enhancement of curriculum vitae; and improved positive attitude and sense of achievement since students improved academic performance.

Loy, W., Crown, K., & Wessley, A. (1996). Academic support service as a means for professional development. St. Louis, MO: St. Louis Community College at Meramec.  This paper describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) as serving both the purpose of providing academic support to students while providing a venue for faculty professional development. The authors presented the paper at the 1996 NISOD conference. During the process of instituting SI, faculty re-familiarize themselves with good student qualities. Faculty learn about collaboratively learning and study strategies that often can be incorporated into classroom. Faculty learn more about curriculum development and learning experiences. The instructor receives continual assessment and feedback through the SI program.

Martin, D. C., & Arendale, D. (1997). Mainstreaming of developmental education: Supplemental Instruction and Video-based Supplemental Instruction. Unpublished Manuscript, The University of Missouri-Kansas City.
This paper describes the development of Supplemental Instruction (SI) and Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI) to serve an effective way to mainstream the best features of developmental education into traditional college-level courses. The historical development and modern day implementation of both programs are described.

Martin, D. C., & Arendale, D. (1997). Video-based Supplemental Instruction: Interactive video courses. Unpublished manuscript, The University of Missouri-Kansas City. 
This report reviews the Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI) program initiated at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. The report provides a descriptive overview of VSI as well as numerous data studies concerning its use with high school and college students. Data studies suggest that among college students the VSI participants receive higher final course grades and reenroll at higher rates than the non-participants. VSI at the college level is targeted for students who have a history of academic difficulty (e.g., probation or dismissal) and have lower academic predictors (e.g., lower standardized entrance scores, lower high school percentile rank). As measured by the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI), VSI participants show positive gains at the end of the academic term. Data studies of high school students who enroll in VSI courses suggest that they earn higher mean final course grades than college students who do not participate in VSI but enroll in the live section of the same class.

Martin, D. C., DeBuhr, L., & Garland, M. (1987, January 4). Developing critical thinking skills of college students through Supplemental Instruction. Paper presented at the Third International Conference on Thinking, Honolulu, HI. 
The authors describe the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) for improving the critical thinking skills of students. Some SI session activities help foster improved thinking skills: modeling of thinking processes by the SI leader; probing questions; redirective and higher levels of questioning; facilitating student discussions of their thought processes; escalation of discussions from concrete to abstract levels; and precise use of content vocabulary.

McGlone, F. D. (1994). A training and implementation program for first year student peer mentors. Unpublished manuscript, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. 
The Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Faculty of Law (Brisbane, Australia) Supplemental Instruction (SI) program encouraged students to: develop deep approaches to learning, develop generic learning skills, and increase student autonomy while encouraging them to work and learn cooperatively with others. The SI program operates in two classes: Torts and Contracts with class sizes exceeding 350. In addition to improving academic performance of student participants, the SI leaders reported enhanced communication and interpersonal skills which they perceived to increase their job marketability.

Moore, I. (1992). Undergraduate students as assistant demonstrators in the first year physics laboratory. (Report No. 27). Unpublished manuscript, Queensland University of Technology, School of Physics, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia: 
This paper describes the use of a modified Supplemental Instruction (SI) program in the School of Physics at Queensland University of Technology (Brisbane, Australia). The pilot project used second and third year physics major students as assistant demonstrators in the first year physics laboratory. In addition to improvement by the students in the class, the assistant demonstrators also showed improvements in their class performance. Through qualitative research, it appears that the assistant demonstrators helped students to improve their own learning process, focus on the process rather than rushing to complete the task, and think of new issues and questions.

Murray, M. H. (1995). Report on Peer Assisted Study Sessions in Engineering Mechanics 2. Unpublished manuscript, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
This report discusses the use of Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS), the local institutional term for the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program used at Queensland University of Technology (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia) in CEB185, Engineering Mechanics 2. PASS participants earned higher mean final course grades (3.6 vs. 2.8 on a 0 to 7 scale). The most significant change in grades was in improving the performance of students who previously were projected to earn low grades and see them now achieve final grades in the mid range. PASS participants mentioned the following reasons for attending the sessions: working on past exam and test solutions; discussion of problems; being able to ask questions freely and not look stupid; realizing there were different ways to tackle a problem; and interaction with fellow students and leaders who had recently done well in the course.

Murray, M. H., Grady, J., & Perrett, S. (1997). Students managing students' learning. Paper presented at the 9th Annual Conference of the Australian Association of Engineering Education, December 14-17, 1997. 
This paper describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at Queensland University of Technology (Brisbane, Australia) in engineering classes (Engineering Mechanics I and II). Student participant comments said that participation in SI sessions: developed greater understanding, more helpful than tutorials, made discussions more enjoyable, developed greater confidence, enjoyed group work, and found the atmosphere more relaxed and helpful. SI leaders mentioned the following benefits for themselves: reinforced own learning and study skills, developed more confidence, made academic coursework more challenging and satisfying.

Nel, P. P. C., Beylefeld, A. A., & Nel, M. M. (1997). Video-based Supplemental Instruction as an integral part of an academic support and development program. Unpublished manuscript, University of the Orange Free State at Bloemfontein, South Africa.  Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI) is being used at the University of the Orange Free State (Bloemfontein, South Africa) for academic development and parallel-medium instruction. The paper provides an overview of the VSI program. A study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy and Cell Morphology, Faculty of Medicine with nursing students enrolled for a course in this department. Many of these nursing students are from educationally deprived backgrounds. Data suggests that VSI participants performed at the same level, or higher, than students who do not come from an educationally deprived background.

Phillips, K. (1995). Supplemental Instruction in Australia. Unpublished manuscript, The University of Missouri-Kansas City.
This report records the observations by a staff member from the National Center for Supplemental Instruction (SI) located in Kansas City, MO during her professional development leave in Australia in the first half of 1997. The author records her observations concerning the SI programs operating at Queensland University of Technology, University of Southern Queensland, and the University of Western Sydney-Nepean. Some of the adaptations of the SI model frequently used with Australian higher education include: use of multiple SI leaders in a single class, SI leaders work in pairs during SI sessions, and the SI program is usually decentralized on campus. Often the course lecturer selects, hires, trains, evaluates, and supervises the SI leader. This administrative procedure encourages higher involvement of the lecturer in the SI program. A drawback mentioned by the author is that this responsibility is added due to heavy work demands placed upon the lecturer for other responsibilities. There is continuing discussion with Australian educators regarding the strengths and challenges with a decentralized SI administrative structure.

Rand, P. (1994). Video Based Tutorial System for first year nursing students. Unpublished manuscript, The University of the Orange Free State, South Africa. 
This paper describes the use of Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI) with nursing students at the University of the Orange Free State in South Africa during 1994. The VSI program was implemented to assist nursing students who were severely academically underprepared. The author reports high satisfaction with the program since low grades were decreased and higher grades were increased in comparison with academic terms that did not have VSI offered.

Ross, T. (1995). Report on Peer Assisted Study Sessions conducted in visual arts, second semester 1995: AASB726, Introduction to Art History. Unpublished manuscript, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. 
This report discusses the use of Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS), the local institutional name for the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program with students enrolled in an Introduction to Art History course (AAB726). For several reasons, the grades of PASS and non-PASS students were nearly the same. The author suggests that part of the difficulty for the PASS program was that the PASS leaders did not attend class along with the other students. The course curriculum had undergone a signficant change between when the PASS leaders attended the same class and when they attempted to provide academic assistance to the students. However, surveys found that PASS leaders found the experience very helpful: improved interpersonal skills (100%); improved learning skills (100%); developed facilitating skills (100%); and developed leadership skills (100%).

Sandmann, B. J., & Kelly, B. K. W. (1979). Effect of Supplemental Instruction on student performance in a Pharmaceutics course. Unpublished manuscript, The University of Missouri-Kansas City.   This investigation sought to determine if Supplemental Instruction (S) would effect student performance in a physical pharmacy course at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. Mean scores on pretest, quizzes, first, second, and final examinations for the two groups (SI and non-SI participants) were compared by conducting a t-test. While scores for the non-SI group remained relatively constant, the SI participant group's academic performance improved throughout the academic term.

Shores, P., & Tiernan, J. (1996). Peer mentor training: A collaborative exercise in systemic change. Unpublished manuscript, University of Western Sydney at Nepean, New South Wales, Australia. Available: Ms. Penny Shores, Counseling and Health Unit, University of Western Sydney, Nepean, P. O. Box 10, Kingswood New South Wales 2747, Australia.
The Learning Center and the Counseling and Health Unit of the University of Western Sydney (Nepean, Australia) have been piloting a Peer Mentor program that is based on the American Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. The SI program is being used an a tool for systemic intervention at the institution by creating an environment for students to change their attitudes. The SI program is being used to serve the increasingly diverse population at the university. Much of the report centered on the training of the SI leaders. Some faculty members also report using the SI program as a feed back mechanism to identify the comprehension level of the students regarding the classroom lectures.

Spencer, C., & Loh, H. (1994). Improving the learning style of first year Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander nursing students studying anatomy. Paper presented at the Conference of Science in Nurse Education, Ballarat, Australia. 
This report describes the use in 1994 of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at Queensland University of Technology (Australia) with first year Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (A&TSI) students. The local institutional name for the program is Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS). Many of these A&TSI students began postsecondary education with high anxiety (79% student response), low to medium confidence in passing their courses, limited knowledge of study skills, and high to moderate difficulty levels within their respective subjects. Based on qualitative research interviews with the A&TSI students, the majority reported they were more confident in passing anatomy after attending the SI sessions. Further, they reported that they were more motivated to perform better and most felt that the SI sessions helped them in developing study skills as their anxiety for the subject decreased.

Spencer, G. (1994). Supplemental Instruction: Adapt or die? Paper presented at the South African Association for Academic Development Conference, University of Natal, Durban, Republic of South Africa.
This unpublished manuscript describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at the University of Natal in South Africa. The SI model has been modified increasing the curriculum development focus potential of the model. Academic Development (AD) and Academic Support (AS)are seen as partners in improving teaching and learning. If AD and AS are seen as opposite ends of the learning continuum, SI is shifted toward the AD end of the continuum line in some South African institutions. Several of the modifications of the SI model include that the academic department: take ownership in administration of the SI program; faculty members take additional time to work with the SI leaders; faculty members recognize that changes need to be made regarding instructional delivery and content selection; faculty members modify their course delivery based on common themes of student comments; and key senior faculty members become highly involved in the SI program an ensuring that curriculum develop occurs.

Stockly, S. K. (1996, March). Closing the gap in technical skills: Supplemental Instruction and Mexican-American undergraduate women. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Southwestern Sociological Association, Houston, TX. 
This quasi-experimental study in Spring 1994 examines the performance of Mexican American women in an Introductory Economics course (Economics 302, Principals of Macroeconomics) at the University of Texas at Austin. Supplemental Instruction (SI) was offered as an academic enrichment program for students. SI participation rates were higher for women than men and students of color when compared with White students. The data suggest that SI participation had a positive correlation with increased mean final course grades in all comparison groups except Asian American women (White: men, 2.84 vs. 2.37 and women, 2.77 vs. 2.06; African American: men, 1.60 vs. 1.50 and women, 3.00 vs. 1.25; Asian American: men, 3.20 vs. 2.46 and women, 2.78 vs. 3.00; Hispanic: men, 2.10 vs. 1.60 and women, 2.38 vs. 1.46; and all students: 2.68 vs. 2.19).

Tanaka, C. (1995). Peer Assisted Study Sessions in HUB 661 Japanese. Unpublished manuscript, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. 
This research report documents the use of Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) at Queensland University of Technology (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia) in HUB 661 Japanese language course. This course is often chosen as a second-semester, first year subject for International Business students. PASS is the local institutional name for the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. Benefits of the PASS program for participants included slightly higher mean final course grades and lower rates of withdrawal. The professor who had PASS attached to his class reported receiving helpful feedback from the PASS leader concerning the comprehension level of the students. This afforded them an opportunity to revise lectures and review upcoming examinations. PASS leaders reported the following behavioral changes: learned how to give feedback to the course lecturer in an appropriate fashion; learned to work in harmony with other students and leaders; improved their own communication skills; improved their content knowledge and skill; and gained valuable insight into the learning process.

Tonsetic, R., & Warren, B. Z. (1997). Assisting faculty and students in adjusting to large class environments. Unpublished manuscript, The University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL. 
This paper discusses the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at the University of Central Florida (27,000 students) as one component in dealing with helping faculty and students deal with large classes. In Spring 1997 39 classes had an enrollment of 200 or more students. During Fall 1996 SI was provided for four large class sections including a chemistry course for non-science majors. SI participants earned a higher mean final course grade (3.39 vs. 1.72). When adjusted for differences in SAT scores, the SI group still received higher grades (2.54 vs. 1.71). The percent of A and B final course grades was higher for the SI group (47% vs. 20%) as well as lower rates of D, F or course withdrawals (18% vs. 56%). Positive results were also reported for the SI in general biology and American national government. There were no significant differences in the calculus course. While there was high satisfaction with the SI participants, the grade differences were not significant. The authors suggest that the SI sessions in math need modification for more effective use. In addition, the authors administered several personality instruments for additional research. The Student Behavior Checklist (Long, 1985) examined the Long Reactive Personality Types with the SI participants and generated the following results: aggressive-independent (16%); aggressive-dependent (48%); passive-independent (8%); and passive-dependent (16%). Using the Long Personality Traits instrument the following results were generated concerning the SI participants: phobic (31%); compulsive (69%); impulsive (15%); and hysteric (32%).

Van Lanen, R. J., & Lockie, N. M. (1992). Addressing the challenge of student diversity: Impact of Supplemental Instruction on performance in a freshman level chemistry course. Unpublished manuscript, Saint Xavier University, Chicago, IL.
The paper is based on the results of a pilot research study designed to determine the effect of Supplemental Instruction (SI) attendance on the performance and retention of a diverse student population in Chemistry 108 for various levels of SI attendance and to determine relationships between demographic and academic variables of the sample and participation in SI. The sample consisted of Saint Xavier University (Chicago, IL) students enrolled in Chemistry 108 (N=61) in Fall, 1990 and Spring, 1991. Significant differences in performance in Chemistry for the SI group and the non-SI group, as measured by final course grades, were observed when the SI group was defined as students attending six or more SI sessions and the non-SI group was defined as students attending five or fewer SI sessions. Both academic variables and the demographic variables were compared for the SI group and for the non-SI group.

Wallace, J. (1993). The use of Supplemental Instruction in sub-degree vocational courses. London, England: Unpublished manuscript, Kingston University at Surrey, England.  This report describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) with sub-degree vocational courses at Kingston University (London, UK). Kingston runs a number of sub-degree courses leading to the Higher National Diploma (HND) in Electronic Engineering which is obtained from the Business and Technology Education Council (BTEC) through the university. In October, 1990 SI was introduced into several courses in the Faculty of Technology at Kingston. Data from 1990 to 1991 suggests that SI participants received statistically (p < .05) higher final course grades (Mathematics: 60.9 percentile vs. 48.1 percentile; Circuits & Systems: 64.0 vs. 49.9; Electronic Principles: 60.0 vs. 49.4; Software Principles: 55.3 vs. 41.5; and Management Studies: 69.4 vs. 53.5). and had lower rates of withdrawal. In addition, interviews with SI participants suggest that they also develop "transferable skills" that help them in other courses.

Watters, J. J., & Ginns, I. S. (1997). Peer assisted learning: Impact on self-efficacy and achievement. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Conference, March 24-28, 1997, Chicago, IL. 
This paper describes the use of program modeled after Supplemental Instruction (SI) in a teacher education course at Queensland University of Technology (Brisbane, Australia). The institutional name for the program is Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS). The class had 124 students enrolled in a course designed for first-year Bachelor of Education students. Program outcomes were that SI participants earned higher final course grades (4.88 vs. 4.15 on a scale of 0 to 7) and self-reported development regarding confidence and improved attitudes to learning and science. There was a trend for higher grade achievement with higher levels of attendance at the SI sessions. The SI leaders reported improved confidence, facilitatory skills, and insight into adult education.

Webster, T., & Malloch, C. (1997). Supplemental Instruction benefits students in a traditional and non-traditional introductory physics course: A two semester study. Unpublished manuscript, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Available: Thomas Webster, The Advising and Learning Assistance Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180.
After a review of the literature concerning physics education, this paper describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, NY). An introductory physics course (Physics 2) was studied during Fall 1996 and Spring 1997. The fall course was taught in the traditional method. The spring section of the course used the CUPLE Studio Physics Project and was much smaller the fall course. Students who received a D or F on the second exam were classified as "high-risk" and students who received a C on the same exam were designated as "at-risk." Students who attended SI received significantly (p < .01) higher mean final course grade (3.37 and 3.08 for the traditional and non-traditional learning environments, respectively) than those students who did not attend SI (3.09 and 2.44, respectively). Students who attended SI received a significantly (p < .01) lower rate of D and F final grades (1% and 5%, respectively) than the students who did not attend (8% and 37%, respectively). The data suggests that students who began to attend SI early and frequently (at least 6 times throughout the semester) benefitted more than SI than students who attended SI late in the semester or infrequently. Students who were classified as at-risk or high-risk and attended SI earned higher grades than their counterparts who did not attend SI sessions.

Whatman, S. (1995). Peer assisted study sessions with Aboriginal and Tores Strait Islander students during semester two, 1995. Unpublished manuscript, Queensland University of Technology at Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
This report describes the use in semester 2, 1995 of Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) at Queensland University of Technology (Australia) with first year Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (A&TSI) students who were attending class at the Gardens Point Campus. PASS is the locally used name for Supplemental Instruction (SI). A&TSI students had typically experienced considerable difficulty in courses such as Information Technology and Business. These courses historically had low Indigenous student enrollments, and consequently, had very few successful graduates. Eight courses were selected for PASS support: Computer Applications, Software Development 1 & 2, Technology of Information Systems, Business Communication & Application Development, Theoretical Perspectives on Communication, Microeconomics, and Reporting Principles. Before introduction of the PASS program in the second semester, the A&TSI students as a group earned fairly low grades. At the end of the semester with PASS support, the students earned higher final course grades. PASS leaders reported the following benefits for themselves: more opportunity to talk with faculty members, greater understanding of course content which helped in other classes, and developed friendships with more students that they would normally would have not met.

Zerger, S. (1990). Supplemental Instruction: Learning through modeling. Unpublished manuscript, Bethel College at North Newton, KS.
This unpublished manuscript describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) to improve student learning. The paper focuses on explaining how learning occurs in SI, using the social learning theory described in Bandura to do so. According to Bandura, humans can and do learn most things through watching others. This capacity to learn by observation enables humans to acquire large integrated patterns more quickly than if they had to learn all via direct trial and error.





 

Section Nine: Internet Resources

 

Painter, S. (Ed.). (2006). Internet homepage for the International Center for Supplemental Instruction [On-line].
This Internet homepage maintained by the International Center for Supplemental Instruction at the University of Missouri-Kansas City provides a central location for information about SI. Some of the menu items include: overview of SI; links to homepages of SI leaders at UMKC; information about upcoming SI Supervisor training trainings; instructions on how to subscribe to the SI listserv discussion group; SI materials for sale; directory of known SI homepages from other colleges around the world; and a directory of SI-related documents.

Painter, S. (Moderator). Supplemental Instruction Internet computer discussion listserv [On-line]. Kansas City, MO: The University of Missouri-Kansas, Center for Supplemental Instruction. 
This moderated computer discussion listserv is provided by the International Center for Supplemental Instruction (SI). Discussion topics include: customizing SI for different content areas; strategies to increase SI attendance; methods to conduct qualitative and quantitative research; and other topics. Subscription to the listserv and is free to anyone, regardless of whether they have an active SI program or not. SI Leaders as well as SI Supervisors are especially invited to join the list. Approximately 250 persons from several countries are members of the listserv. To subscribe to the listserv, follow this
link.


 

Section Ten: Newspaper and Other Media Coverage
 

Akao, S. E. (1996). Book review of Supplemental Instruction: Increasing achievement and retention. Journal of College Student Personnel, 37(3), 360
This is a book review of the monograph Supplemental Instruction: Increasing achievement and retention (
Martin and Arendale, Editors, 1994). The book review provides a short summary of each of the monograph's chapters.

Associated Press. (1988, October 4). Dayton program 'grade A'. University of Dayton Newspaper, Dayton, OH, p. 8
This newspaper article provides an interview with Jim Melko, director of the University of Dayton (OH) concerning the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at the institution in the economics department with the microeconomics course. The course has been historically difficult for students due to the demand for higher order thinking and analytical skills and need to acquire and master the specific vocabulary of the economics discipline.

Bryson, D. (1987, March 8). Study sessions help medical students get over the hump of board tests. Daily American Republic Newspaper, Popular Bluff, MO, p. 5
This newspaper article describes an adaptation of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model with medical students who are studying to pass their licensure examination so that they may continue with their clinical studies. The article includes interviews with Dr. Robert Blanc, Coordinator of Curriculum Development at the UMKC medical school and
Dr. Deanna Martin, Director of the Academic Support and Mentoring. Some of the activities of the semester-length board preparation program mentioned by students interviewed in the article are: students learn how to work in groups to learn new material, students must be able to explain concepts to one another to assure understanding, students focus on the thinking process as much as the content, and students develop confidence in their ability to do well with challenging examinations.

Carbon, D. (1995, August 1). Universities give peer program top marks. Courier Mail Newspaper, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, p. 25
This newspaper article reports on the implementation of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at three postsecondary institutions in Australia (Queensland University of Technology, University of Queensland, and the University of Southern Queensland). Henry Loh, QUT anatomy professor, reported reducing students' failure rate from 20 to 5 percent after the introduction of the SI program. However, he implemented the program more to increase academic performance than to just reduce student failure rates. Barbara Kelly of UQ reports that SI leaders regularly provide feedback to the course professors regarding the comprehension level of the students. At UQ the SI program is being used in biochemistry, microbiology, engineering, chemistry, and law. Kelly requires SI leaders to maintain diaries to record SI session activities, student behaviors, and suggestions to improve the program. SI leaders report improvement of their confidence levels, developed better communication skills, and believed that their employment prospects were improved.

Carroll, D. (1994, September 13). UMKC to work with South African school. The Kansas City Star Newspaper, Kansas City, MO, p. B3
This newspaper article describes an agreement between the University of Missouri-Kansas City and the University of Port Elizabeth in South Africa concerning the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. UPE has been successfully using the SI program already for one year.

Chandler, J. (1994, December 24). Peer guidance tutors: Group study sessions led by 'A' students help some struggling with 'killer' math and science courses at community colleges. Los Angeles Times Newspaper, Los Angeles, CA, pp. B1, B6
This newspaper article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) program in several colleges in the Los Angeles, CA area (Pierce College, Glendale Community College, Cal State Northridge, Pasadena City College, Valley College in Van Nuys). At Pierce College in a biology course 76 percent of the SI participants earned a grade of A, B, or C while the non-SI participants earned a similar grade only 50 percent of the time. Glendale Community College has a large program with 50 SI leaders. A challenge mentioned by administrative leaders some of the SI programs was finding stable funding to continue the program each year. Several interviewees mentioned that the SI program was important for all students, not just the ones in severe academic trouble.

Cobb, R. (1997). Learning is the lesson: Center illuminates path to understanding. Illinois State Scholar, 7(1), 16-17
This article describes the University Center for Learning Assistance at Illinois State University (Normal, IL). In an interview with Julia Visor, acting director of the center, an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program at the university is provided. During the Spring 1997 semester, SI was offered to students enrolled in Chemistry and Society, General Psychology, Principles of Microeconomics, Principles of Macroeconomics, Introduction to Non-Western Politics, American Government and Politics, History of the United States to 1865, and Human Biology. Some of the SI participants include students in Student Support Services, one of the federally-funded TRIO programs. A short summary of several research studies concerning SI's impact on affective variables conducted by Visor and others is shared.

Conroy, G. J. (1996, May 28). Supplemental Instruction program shows results first year. The Observer Newspaper, Edwardsville, IL, pp. 3-4
This newspaper article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville. SI sessions were offered in an introductory biological sciences course (Biology 120). The article indicated one of the SI program benefits was that SI leaders who were biology education majors learned pedagogical methods. The SI supervisor reported a preference for hiring education majors. According to data from Fall 1995 in Biology 120, SI participants to attended four or more sessions earned a mean grade of a low B, whereas those who attended one to three sessions averaged a C. Those who did not attend any SI sessions averaged a D.

Duckett, J. (1996, April 28). Tutors offers more than last-minute fix. The Morning Call Newspaper, Allentown, PA, p. E1
This newspaper article describes tutoring programs at colleges in the Allentown, PA area. Supplemental Instruction (SI) is used at Kutztown University.

Fisher, M. (1988, September 23). UD "ringers" succeeding academically. Dayton Daily News, Dayton, OH, p. 3
This newspaper article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at the University of Dayton (OH).

Gentner, N. (1997, April 22). Queensland University of Technology to push Supplemental Instruction in local units. Inside QUT (Queensland University of Technology Newspaper), Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, p. 11
This newspaper article contains an interview with Kathy Phillips, Supplemental Instruction campus coordinator from The University of Missouri-Kansas City who was spending an academic term at the Queensland University of Technology (Australia). The SI program was started at QUT by Professor Ron Gardiner, then Associate Pro-Vice-Chancellor (Academic) in 1992. At present SI is offered to 1,000 students in 12 course units in four faculties.

Gilinsky, R. (1985, October 20). Extra effort. New York Times Newspaper, New York City, NY, p. 10 This newspaper article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program.

Henry, M. (1998, February 27). Faculty senate applauds recommendations. Lubbock Avalanche-Journal, Lubbock, TX, p. 7c
This newspaper article discusses the steps that Texas Tech Chancellor John Montford outlined to enhance academic performance of student-athletes. Supplemental Instruction (SI) was among the suggested activities. Four classes with high concentrations of student-athletes have SI provided as a service with an expansion to 10 to 12 classes for the following fall 1998 academic term.

Hensley, D. (1997, February 27). Montford vows to set new pace for Texas Tech University athletes. Lubbock Avalanche-Journal, Lubbock, TX, p. 7c
The Chancellor of Texas Tech University (Lubbock, TX) announces that the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program will be expanded at the institution as part of a comprehensive increase in academic support services for student-athletes. Due to several highly-publicized cases of poor academic performance by several athletes, the institution will provide: closely monitored study table; SI provided in more classes; tutors to students when they are out-of-town for athletic contests; and more closely monitored class attendance.

Hinckley, A. (1991, April). Students get paid to help others pass. The National College Newspaper, p. 23
This newspaper article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) program at Utah State University. Currently SI is offered in connection with two courses: economics and nutrition/food science. The SI program is administered through the Learning Assistance Center.

Hollenkamp, J. (1992, April 1). Supplemental Instructors help fellow students understand lectures, homework. Louisville Cardinal Newspaper, Louisville, KY, p. 10
This newspaper describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) with students at the University of Louisville (KY) since 1984. Each academic term SI is offered in a dozen courses for the following academic departments: accounting, biology, chemistry, EMCS, geography, HED, history, ISDP, math, physics, political science, and sociology.

Horsley, L. (1991, September 19). UMKC pioneers a 'survival course': Study skills program gives students the help they need to succeed. The Kansas City Star Newspaper, Kansas City, MO, pp. 1, 6
This newspaper article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. The article provides an interview with
Deanna Martin -- SI's creator -- as well as several other SI supervisors and SI leaders. Dr. Gary Widmar, UMKC Vice Chancellor for Student Affairs, estimates that for every dollar invested in the SI program for staff salaries, the university receives back six dollars due to higher reenrollment and graduation rates of SI participants. Martin shares that the SI program is expanding to the United Kingdom and the Artic Circle.

Kastor, E. (1984, April 2). Education: Reading, 'riting and reasoning. Washington Post Newspaper, Washington, D.C., p. B5
This newspaper article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program and its use to develop reasoning skills. Research suggests that half of all students entering college lack the basic reasoning skills to completely understand the content of their courses. It contains an interview of
Deanna Martin, creator of the SI program.

Klein, D. (1990, January 16). Program lets students teach class: Volunteers from biology classes are taught how to think. Daily Kent Stater Newspaper, Kent, OH, p. 8
This newspaper article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program at Kent State University (OH). Lowell Orr and LaVerne White from the biology department reported that SI participants earned higher mean final course grades in two courses: "Cells and Systems" and "Strategies for Survival in the Biological World." Students with high attendance patterns (10 or more times per term) generally receive a final course grade one full letter grade higher than non-SI participants.

Landwehr, R. (1995, July 21). Age of reason: Older students propel universities to shift boundaries. Kansas City Business Journal, Kansas City, MO, pp. 21-22
This newspaper article discusses how a variety of universities are adjusting to the needs and requirements of older students. In an interview with Dr. Kay Blair of the University of Missouri-Kansas City, a short overview of the Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI) program is given. Blair listed the following benefits of the VSI program for students: bridges the gap between lectures and learning; helps students to prepare for the rigor of traditional undergraduate courses; fosters collaboration and team-building which are critical skills for the world of work; and taps the individual expertise of the students.

Levine, P. (1975, November 13). 'Whiz-Kids' and troubled flock to learning center. UNews (University of Missouri-Kansas City Student Newspaper), Kansas City, MO, pp. 1, 13
This newspaper article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) with some of the most gifted students at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. Skills that these students used in high school are not sufficient for the academic rigor experienced at the university.

Levy, T. (1991, October 14). Students get into the upliftment business. Business Day Newspaper, Wits, South Africa, p. 10
This newspaper article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at Wits University in South Africa. The SI program will be started by commerce students at the university. The SI program will be aimed at assisting Black students who have been disadvantaged by the secondary school system.

Lupkin, M. (1994, July 28). Linking science to students' lives. This summer program offers academic aid to minorities. Philadelphia Inquirer Newspaper, Philadelphia, PA, p. 3
This newspaper articles mentions that Supplemental Instruction (SI) is a component in a special program for minority students at Rutgers University at Camden (PA) called "Success in the Sciences." Students are brought in for a special four-week enrichment program before the beginning of the freshman year to prepare them for the rigor of courses at Rutgers. SI is offered in connection with their first-year courses in math, chemistry and biology. The program has been partly funded with a $500,000 grant from the William Penn Foundation and $50,000 grant from the Coca-Cola Foundation.

Makins, V. (1991, July 5). Passing on a year's experience: How peer tutors at Kingston Polytechnic help students combat isolation. The London Times, London, England, pp. 1-3.  The article describes how Kingston Polytechnic in England has customized the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at their institution. The campus SI supervisor reports that a challenge in the SI sessions is the requirement that SI leaders redirect all questions back to the SI participants to answer.

McMichale, E. (1994, November 29). 'Natural teachers:' Tutors work alongside students in "K' program. Kalamazoo Gazette, Kalamazoo, MI, p. C1
This newspaper article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at Western Michigan University located in Kalamazoo, Michigan.

Meikle, J. (1993, February 16). Learning to help others. Guardian Education Newspaper, London, England, p. 10
This newspaper article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at Kingston University in the United Kingdom. In an interview with Jenni Wallace, SI Certified Trainer for the United Kingdom, she explains that SI sessions are positioned between the classroom lectures by the professor and the tutorial sessions. The SI sessions help students to be better prepared to maximize their time spent in the tutorial sessions. There are reports that former SI leaders and participants in succeeding academic terms form their own study groups in classes where formal SI sessions are not offered. Former SI leaders report that potential employers are impressed with the skills that they developed as facilitators of the study groups.

Millard, M. (1995, October 19). First African-American to hold post: New Chancellor at City College helps win $1.67 million grant. The Sun Reporter, San Francisco, CA, p. 1
This newspaper article describes how Del Anderson, the new Chancellor of San Francisco City College (CA), will use a $1.67 Title III grant from USDOE to help students in "high risk" courses and to bring the Internet into the classroom. The chancellor, formerly president of San Jose City College, mentioned that she had developed many programs for students of color to help them achieve higher transfer and graduation rates.

Murray, L. (1997, October 24). New program relies on peer instruction. The Daily Reveille (Louisiana State University School Newspaper), Baton Rouge, LA, p. 7.
This newspaper article provides a basic overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model. SI will be implemented on the Louisiana State University campus in Spring 1998.

Oliver, R. (1994 July). University of Port Elizabeth rector on the right road. Eastern Province Herald Newspaper, Port Elizabeth, South Africa, p. 11
This newspaper article reports on the signing of an agreement between the University of Missouri-Kansas City and the University of Port Elizabeth in South Africa concerning Supplemental Instruction (SI). UPE is implementing the SI program to help bridge the gap caused by differences in the education systems in the country.

Pappas, J. G. (1997, June 5). Pappas praises Supplemental Instruction program. Central Washington University Observer, Ellensburg, WA, p. 5
This newspaper article by the Dean of Academic Services at Central Washington University describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) program at the institution. The data from the institution suggest that SI participants earn higher mean final course grades. A higher than estimated number of students (69 percent ) participate in the program.

Perrone-Saneski, C. (1984, May 13). Course sharpens freshmen's reasoning skills. Troy Times Newspaper, Troy, NY, p. 1
This newspaper article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. The article contains an interview with
Deanna Martin, SI's creator. According to Martin, as many as 50 percent of college freshmen do not have the learning skills necessary to understand their coursework since they lack advanced reasoning skills. Martin was in Albany, NY presenting a seminar sponsored by the ACT National Center for the Advancement of Educational Practices concerning the use of SI in improving academic performance of students.

Rizvi, T. (1997, June 16). Law students give each other help, reduce failure rate. Campus Report: The University of Dayton Newspaper, Dayton, OH, p. 1
This newspaper article describes the use of an academic support program modeled after Supplemental Instruction (SI) with first-year law students at the University of Dayton (OH). Interviews with faculty members and students emphasized that the program was not about students being underprepared, rather it was to help students bridge into a different learning style. The failure rate for students of color involved in the program have dropped from 30 percent three years ago to 6.5 percent last year. The article also contains an interview with David Arendale from the University of Missouri-Kansas City where the SI program has been used for five years in the UMKC School of Law with similar positive results.

Rizvi, T. (1988, September 23). Study with a buddy: Supplemental Instruction fills the learning gap. Campus Report: The University of Dayton Newspaper, Dayton, OH, p. 1
This newspaper article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) in ECO 203 Microeconomics and ECO 204 Macroeconomics at the University of Dayton (OH).

Ruth, D. (1987, March 7). Education bill helped economy. The Times Picayune, LA, p. A-18
This newspaper article mentions that Supplemental Instruction (SI) is being used at the University of New Orleans with introductory courses in business administration, sociology and Afro-American culture. In these classes students are passing the courses at a rate of 73 percent. Before introduction of SI the pass rate was less than 50 percent.

Sawyer, J. (1990, October 26). University of Missouri involved in project with South Africans. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, St. Louis, MO, p. 15
This newspaper article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program as it is being implemented at the University of the Western Cape (UWC) in Cape Town, South Africa. The article reports on trips by UMKC's Larry De Buhr who went to UWC in 1987 and 1989 to help introduce the SI program.

Schecker, F. (1982, March 29). Program gives boost to students. The Kansas City Star Newspaper, Kansas City, MO, p. 3A
This newspaper article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction program at the University of Missouri-Kansas City.

Schuldt, G. (1991, May 15). Group tutoring program a success. Milwaukee Sentinel Newspaper, Milwaukee, WI, p. 10
This newspaper article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at Milwaukee Area Technical College (WI). Some of the courses that SI is offered include Intermediate Algebra, Introduction to Human Services, Oral Anatomy, Introduction to Occupational Therapy and nine other courses. Data from two courses was reported in the newspaper article. SI participants earned higher mean final course grades than non-SI participants: Oral Anatomy (3.0 vs. 2.2) and Introduction to Occupational Therapy (3.5 vs. 2.3).

Schuss, D. G. (1999, May 30). Many top college students use tutors to keep an edge: Study sessions aren't just for catching up. The Boston Globe, Boston, MA, p. D5
This newspaper article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) and other forms of academic assistance at highly-selected post secondary institutions such as Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Harvard University, Wellesley College, Dartmouth College, Salem State College, and University of Massachusetts/Amherst. Interviews with campus administrators and students suggested the following reasons for interest in SI and other forms of academic enrichment: maintain top class rankings, improve study strategies, understand class lectures from another perspective, and to improve student persistence towards graduation.

Simpson, S. (1994, February 23). How to learn by example. The Scotsman Education, Glasgow, Scotland, p. 22
This newspaper article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at Glasgow Caledonian University in Scotland. The local name for the SI program is Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS). The article contained interviews with several students who mentioned some of the benefits of the SI program: filled gaps in knowledge; develop strategies to work out their own answers; provided a transition into difficult courses; encouraged students to form their own study groups in other classes were SI was not offered; and helped to deal with the high volume of material.

Sowa-Jamrok, C. (1994, July 24). Smaller classes attract students. Chicago Tribune Newspaper, Chicago, IL, p. 17
This newspaper article mentions that Supplemental Instruction (SI) is one of the strategies used at National-Louis University (Chicago, IL) to help students be more active when they are enrolled in large classes. Ofra Peled, who teaches biology and microbiology mentioned that one of the activities used in SI sessions is to have students write about the class lecture material. They write about a lecture concept, discuss it with a few students in a small group, and then after practicing they share about the concept in the next class lecture.

Spofford, T. (1990, October 1). Top students pitch in to lower dropout rates: Peer-run study groups help keep freshmen in college. The Times Union Newspaper, Albany, NY, pp. A1, A12
This newspaper article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program at the State University of Albany (Albany, NY), Hudson Valley Community College (Troy, NY), The College of Saint Rose (Albany, NY), Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, NY), and Skidmore College (Saratoga Spring, NY). Some data from some of the programs and interviews with SI Supervisors and SI leaders also is included. Institutions reported a variety of compensation systems for the SI leaders. At SUNYA they receive three college credits. Most others paid an hourly wage of $5.00 to $6.00. At Rennsselaer the SI leaders receive $1,100 a year, free meals, and a $500 discount on a room in the freshman dormitory.

Staff writer. (1993, November 1). Academic programme at QUT well supported. The Chinese Business and Professional Association of Queensland Newsletter, 47(66)
This newsletter article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at the Queensland University of Technology (Brisbane, Australia).

Staff writer. (1994, June 4). SAU's tutoring gets high ratings. Banner-News, Magnolia, AR, p. 15
The newspaper article mentions that Supplemental Instruction (SI) program is an important part of academic support services at Southern Arkansas University. Preliminary results from the Noel-Levitz Student Satisfaction Inventory suggested that students were very high in comparison with other institutions in the U.S. SAU was one of the institutions that participated in the national survey.

Staff writer. (1995, August 2). Students helping boost pass rates. The University of Southern Queensland Newspaper, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia, p. 5
This newspaper articles describes the implementation of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at the University of Southern Queensland at Toowoomba in the Nursing Department during Fall 1995. In addition to describing the academic benefits to the SI participants, the USQ SI coordinator, David Anderson, reports that a value for SI leaders is that the experience provides leadership development and increases their post-graduate opportunities.

Staff writer. (1995, July 7). Survey shows many study hours wasted. Campus Review, Australia,
This newspaper article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI). It mentions that the SI program has been adopted for use in several Australian institutions: University of Southern Queensland in Toowoomba, University of Queensland, and the Queensland University of Technology.

Staff writer. (1991, March 12). Making the grade: Supplemental Instruction program lets students help other students learn. The Oscoda County Herald, Roscommon, MI, p. 14
This newspaper article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program at Kirtland Community College (MI). Data from SI sessions in biology and chemistry during Fall 1990 suggest that SI participants earned higher mean final course grades than non-SI participants (chemistry: 2.25 vs. 1.22; biology: 2.56 vs. 1.22).

Staff writer. (1991, February 14). Supplemental Instruction program aims to help students earn better grades. The Blue and White Flash: Jackson State University Newspaper, Jackson, MS, p. 4
The newspaper article provided an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program that is being implemented at Jackson State University (MS) in the following academic areas: art, English, history, mass communication, music, and urban affairs.

Staff writer. (1998, January 16). Supplemental Instruction program at UMKC leads the way. Inside UMKC Newsletter, Kansas City, MO, p. 1
This newsletter article describes how the Supplemental Instruction program was featured at a conference hosted by the U.S. Department of Education called "Replacing Remediation in Higher Education" that was hosted at Stanford University on January 26-27, 1998. SI was one of only five programs to be presented at the invitation-only conference.

Staff writer. (1990, August 16). UMKC program improves grades, retention of students in college. Kirksville Daily Express, Kirksville, MO, p. 1
This newspaper article provides a basic overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program.

Staff writer. (1997, October 17). Jim Falls: Fun on tape and in person. UMKC Inside (University of Missouri-Kansas City Newsletter), Kansas City, MO, p. 1
This newsletter article describes a report concerning the VSI program. Dr. Jim Falls, one of the professors who has placed his course on video, is featured in the article. Dr. Falls' VSI section of his on-campus introduction to western civilization history class is also accepted for dual high-school credit as well.

Staff writer. (1996, January 18). Stet R-XV participates in VSI. Stet Newspaper, Stet, MO, p. 8
This newspaper article describes the involvement of the Stet High School (MO) with the Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI) program. Several Missouri state congressional leaders observed the VSI program operating at the high school.

Staff writer. (1995, July 18). New learning process to help first-year University of Southern Queensland students. The Chronicle Newspaper, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia, p. 8
The newspaper article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at the nursing department at the University of Southern Queensland in Australia. In the article
Deanna Martin, creator of the SI model, provided an overview of the SI program while she was visiting the university.

Staff writer. (1997, August 19). Engineering course lifts grades and retention rates. Inside QUT (Queensland University of Technology, Australia), p. 2.
Dr. Martin Murray from Queensland University of Technology in Australia is using Peer-Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) to improve student performance in engineering courses. PASS is the locally used name for the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. PASS was one of several new additions to the course delivery system that both increased student academic achievement but also lowered the cost of instruction.

Staff writer. (1990, November 19). Education student gets SCUP of reality at Westport High. University News (Student Newspaper of the University of Missouri-Kansas City), Kansas City, MO, p. 4
The newspaper article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) with high school students enrolled in English and history classes at an urban high school in Kansas City, MO. Students from the UMKC School of Education were some of persons who served as SI leaders. The article contains an interview with an education major who commented on the positive impact of the experience of working with high school students early in the education degree program rather until the field teaching experience in a school as an upper classman.

Staff writer. (1996, September 24). Wayne State University retention efforts help students stay in school. Michigan Chronicle Newspaper, Detroit, MI, p. 10A
This newspaper article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at Wayne State University (Detroit, MI).Wayne Excel, the university's comprehensive retention program model was implemented in fall 1991. Excel provides a high level of advising and academic support services for at-risk students during their first two years at WSU. SI is one of the components of the Excel program. Institutional research shows that student retention has increased since the Excel program was started.

Staff writer. (1993, September 28). US experts focus on teaching strategies. Inside QUT (Queensland University of Technology Newspaper), Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, p. 2.
This newspaper article describes the upcoming arrival of
Deanna Martin and Robert Blanc from the University of Missouri-Kansas City to conduct a Supplemental Instruction (SI) Supervisor training training at Queensland University of Technology (Brisbane, Australia). The visit to QUT will be supported by the Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia. SI is recognized at QUT as one of the teaching strategies which helped the university win the national Good Universities Guide 1993 University of the Year award.

Staff writer. (1992, July 29). College 'mini-grants' awarded. San Jose Mercury News, San Jose, CA, p. 3
This newspaper article describes 14 grants that were awarded by the San Jose/Evergreen Community College District to teachers for projects to help improve classroom instruction and student services at their colleges. The grants were created to stimulate innovation and creativity, especially in the areas of staff diversity, recruitment of underrepresented groups, retention, and new technologies and enrollment reduction caused by budget restraints. Susan L. Smith received a special grant for Supplemental Instruction.

Stiles, T. (1985, November 6). Study guides help freshmen take note of differences in learning at college. Chicago Tribune Newspaper, Chicago, IL, p. 2
This newspaper article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. The article discusses the transition shock experienced by many former high school students who were academically successful at the secondary level but are now facing academic difficulty in the more rigorous college environment.
Deanna Martin, creator of the SI program, is quoted in the article.

Sulski, J. (1991, January 6). Keeping minorities in college. Schools growing more sensitive to students' needs. Chicago Tribune Newspaper, Chicago, IL, p. 4
This newspaper article mentions that Supplemental Instruction (SI) is one of the activities that is used to improve student achievement of Hispanic students. The Latin American Recruitment and Educational Services (LARES) program is directed by Leonard Ramirez at the University of Illinois at Chicago. SI is a component of the LARES program to help students develop their study strategies and writing skills.

Summers, D. (1995, December 12). Video-based instruction offers alternatives. University News (University of Missouri-Kansas City Student Newspaper), Kansas City, MO, p. 11
This campus newspaper articles describes the use of Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI) to deliver a college introductory history course to students at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. The article provides a brief overview and a few statistics about the higher grades and lower course withdrawal rates for VSI students as compared with students who enroll in the identical course taught by the same professor who previously placed his class lectures on the VSI videotapes.

Sutton, K. (1994, February 5). Deanna Martin aids University of Port Elizabeth to chop failure rate. Eastern Providence Herald Newspaper, Port Elizabeth, South Africa, p. 7
This newspaper article contains an interview of
Deanna Martin who is creator of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) model. The interview describes the development of the SI model in the United States and its implementation at institutions worldwide. Included is a description of the role of Dr. Andre Havenga in developing the program at the University of Port Elizabeth in South Africa.

United Press International. (1990, August 16). UMKC program improves grades, retention of students in college. Kirksville Daily News, Kirksville, MO, pp. 1-2
The newspaper article carried by United Press International (UPI) provides a short overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program.

Weil, D. (1996, April 23). New program focuses on high-risk courses. The Alestle Newspaper, Edwardsville, IL, pp. 1, 4
This newspaper article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) program at Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville in the biology department. Dr. Gertraude Wittig, coordinator of the SI program in the biology department, said that SI is different from traditional tutoring since students are actively involved in the sessions and focus is placed on development of both learning skills and content mastery.

Weiner, R. (1995, December 4). Community college students get help from 'old pros' people who have already passed classes give newcomers a boost. St. Louis Post Dispatch Newspaper, St. Louis, MO, p. 1
This newspaper article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at two area community colleges in the St. Louis, MO area (St. Louis Community College-Meramec and St. Louis Community College-Florissant Valley). Meramec's president, Richard Black, said that the SI program was part of a program to ensure accountability in education to improve its effectiveness in serving students.

Weiner, R. (1995, December 7). Community colleges' program helps students help each other. St. Louis Post-Dispatch Newspaper, St. Louis, MO, p. 3
This newspaper articles describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at two community colleges in the St. Louis, MO area (St. Louis Community College-Meramec and St. Louis Community College-Florissant Valley). Gwen Nixon, who administers academic support programs at Florissant Valley said that success rates rose by ten percent in Spring 1995 in courses where SI was offered. SI is offered in the following courses at Florissant Valley: American history, economics, accounting, college algebra, chemistry, and biology. Willis Loy, Associate Dean for Mathematics and Communications at Meramec stated that the SI program is cost effective since it only takes the retention of one student who would have withdrawn from a course to pay for the salary of the SI leader.

Weiner, R. (1995, November 30). College officials tout new program. Students having trouble in class can get extra instruction. St. Louis Post Dispatch Newspaper, St. Louis, MO, p. 2
This newspaper article describes the use of Supplemental Instruction (SI) at two area community colleges in the St. Louis, MO area (St. Louis Community College-Meramec and St. Louis Community College-Florissant Valley). Meramec's president, Richard Black, said that the SI program was tied to the State of Missouri's Funding for Results program that rewards colleges for achieving results.

Whiteside, D. (1995, December 20). Capitol News Release. Jefferson City, MO:
This news release provides information about Missouri State Representative Whiteside's visit to see the Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI) program as was viewed by a delegation led by him. The VSI program was reviewed at the Mendon, Norborne, and Stet high schools.

Wiethop, C. (1985, March 15). Supplemental Instruction planned. Current (University of Missouri-St. Louis Student Newspaper), 1-3
This newspaper article describes the implementation of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program on the campus of the University of Missouri-St. Louis.

Wood, T. (1984, September 10). Plan aims at making students better thinkers. The Kansas City Star Newspaper, Kansas City, MO, pp. 1A, 5A
The newspaper article provides an overview of the Supplemental Instruction (SI) program. The article contains an interview with several SI personnel -- including
Deanna Martin, creator of the SI program -- and faculty members who have SI attached to their class. Faculty report support for the program for the following reasons: do not have to spend time in class repeating content material since it can be discussed more fully in SI sessions; improves academic performance of students; and does not infringe upon the tradition of the professor's role in the learning process. In the Foundations of Philosophy course the SI participants received a mean final course grade of 2.3 (out of 4.0) as compared with 1.4 for non-SI participants.