For men, there are two types of diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is more commonly diagnosed later in life. However, because of lifestyle factors including diet and exercise, type 2 diabetes is becoming more common among young adults and adolescents.
Is type 2 diabetes preventable?
What medicines are used to treat type 2 diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes is sometimes treated with insulin, and is sometimes treated with oral medications (pills) or other types of injectable medicine.
Can type 2 diabetes be treated without using medicine?
Sometimes type 2 diabetes can be treated without using medicine.
Healthy eating and staying physically active can help reduce blood glucose levels without medication. However, you should always talk to your health care provider before stopping any prescribed medication.
If you are trying to help someone that you know or suspect to have diabetes, always call 911 if the person is unresponsive or unconscious.
What is Prediabetes?
Prediabetes is when a person's blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be type 2 diabetes. People with prediabetes are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes and may have some problems from diabetes already.
What about texting and driving?
Substance Abuse is a major contributor to unintended injuries. Find out how!
Number of emergency department visits for unintentional injuries: 29.5 million
According to the World Health Organization, unintentional injuries were responsible for over 3.9 million deaths and over 138 million disability-adjusted life-years in 2004, with over 90% of those occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC.)
The worldwide rate of unintentional injuries is 61 per 100,000 populations per year.
Overall, road traffic injuries make up the largest proportion of unintentional injury deaths (33%). When standardized per population of 100,000, the death rate is nearly double in LMIC versus high-income countries (65 vs. 35 per 100,000), and the rate of disability-adjusted life-years is more than triple in LMIC (2,398 vs. 774 per 100,000).
Nearly half of unintentional injury deaths (47%) in males occur between the ages of 15 and 44 years.
The top 5 leading causes of death in 2009 were:
1. Diseases of heart (heart disease, high blood pressure )
2. Malignant neoplasms (cancer)
3. Chronic lower respiratory diseases (asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, COPD)
4. Cerebrovascular diseases (stroke)
5. Accidents (Unintentional Injuries)
- In 2009, a total of 177,154 deaths were classified as injury related. The mechanism involves the circumstances of the injury (e.g., fall, motor vehicle traffic, or poisoning). The manner or intent involves whether the injury was purposefully inflicted (where it can be determined) and, when intentional, whether the injury was self-inflicted (suicide) or inflicted upon another person (assault).
- In 2009, motor-vehicle traffic-related injuries resulted in 34,485 deaths, accounting for 19.5 percent of all injury deaths. The age-adjusted death rate for motor-vehicle traffic-related injuries decreased by 9.8 percent from 12.3 per 100,000 standard populations in 2008 to 11.1 in 2009.
- In 2009, 31,347 persons died from firearm injuries in the United States accounting for 17.7 percent of all injury deaths that year. The two major component causes of all firearm injury deaths in 2009 were suicide at 59.8 percent and homicide at 36.7 percent.
- In 2009, 25,562 persons died as the result of
falls, 14.4 percent of all injury deaths. The
overwhelming majority of fall-related deaths (97.0
percent) were unintentional.
(Source: National Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 60, No. 3, Dec. 29, 2011)
· Falls are the second leading cause of accidental or unintentional injury deaths worldwide.
· Each year an estimated 424 000 individuals die from falls globally of which over 80% are in low- and middle-income countries.
· 37.3 million Falls that are severe enough to require medical attention occur each year.
The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) is a yearly interview of 67,500 persons sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. It provides the most accurate estimates of drug, alcohol and tobacco use in the general U.S. population.
Most Popular Drugs of Abuse
According to the survey, these are the most commonly abused drugs:
· Marijuana, by 14.8 million people, or 6 percent.
· Cocaine, 2.4 million users.
· Hallucinogens, including Ecstasy, 1 million users.
· Methamphetamine, about 731,000 users.
· Prescription drugs, 7 million nonmedical users.
While the use of illicit drugs remained the same or even decreased since 2002, the past month use of prescription-type drugs increased significantly, especially the abuse of pain relievers. Of the 7 million who reported nonmedical use of prescription drugs, 5.2 million were using painkillers.
In 2002, only 4.1 percent of the population aged 18 to 25 reported abusing pain relievers, but that percentage jumped to 4.9 percent in 2006. Nonmedical use of tranquilizers also increased since 2002, from 1.6 percent to 2 percent for the same age group.
Meanwhile, for the 18 to 25 age group, the current use of marijuana dropped from 17.3 percent to 16.3 percent while at the same time prescription drug abuse increased overall from 5.4 percent to 6.4 percent.
In one study of unintentional injuries that occur in the home in the United States, the total societal cost was estimated to be approximately US $217 billion. Of that, falls accounted for by far the largest proportion (42%) of the total cost.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases/Infections (STDs/STIs)
The Center for Disease Control (CDC) surveillance report includes data on the three STDs that doctors are required to report to local or state public health authorities—gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and syphilis—which represent only a fraction of the true burden of STDs. Some common STDs, like human papillomavirus (HPV) and genital herpes are not required to be reported.
The latest CDC data show troubling trends in three treatable STDs:
While reported rates are at historically low levels, cases increased slightly from last year and more than 300,000 cases were reported in 2010. There are also signs from other CDC surveillance systems that the disease may become resistant to the only available treatment option.
Case reports have been increasing steadily over the past 20 years, and in 2010, 1.3 million Chlamydia cases were reported. While the increase is due to expanded screening efforts, and not to an actual increase in the number of people with Chlamydia, a majority of infections still go undiagnosed.
The overall syphilis rate decreased for the first time in a decade, and is down 1.6 percent since 2009. However, the rate among young black men has increased dramatically over the past five years (134 percent). Other CDC data also show a significant increase in syphilis among young black men who have sex with men (MSM), suggesting that new infections among MSM are driving the increase in young black men. The finding is particularly concerning as there has also been a sharp increase in HIV infections among this population.
Young people represent 25 percent of the sexually experienced population in the United States, but account for nearly half of new STDs. Even with similar levels of individual risk, African Americans and Latinos sometimes face barriers that contribute to increased rates of STDs and are more affected by these diseases than whites.
Less than half of people who should be screened receive recommended STD screening services. Undetected and untreated STDs can increase a person’s risk for HIV and cause other serious health consequences, such as infertility. STD screening can help detect disease early and, when combined with treatment, is one of the most effective tools available to protect one’s health and prevent the spread of STDs to others. Although condoms are highly effective for reducing transmission of STDs, keep in mind that no method is foolproof. STD symptoms aren't always obvious. Some STDs can be treated easily and eliminated, but others require more involved, long-term treatment.
STD Treatment Costs
STDs are one of the most critical health challenges facing the nation today. CDC estimates that there are 19 million new infections every year in the United States. STDs cost the U.S. health care system $17 billion every year—and cost individuals even more in immediate and life-long health consequences.
The cost-effectiveness of syphilis screening depends on numerous factors such as syphilis prevalence. The treatment of 100 adults with syphilis has been estimated to save over $65,000 in direct medical costs by preventing the potential consequences of untreated syphilis, such as neurosyphilis, cardiovascular, and congenital syphilis.
The most recent estimate of the annual cost of chlamydial infection and its sequelae is $647 million (in year 2008 dollars).
Estimated lifetime costs $618,900. Medications are approximately ¾ of the lifetime cost, monthly expense $2100. If treatment started in later stages, $4700 estimated monthly expense (hospital costs rise to almost half of lifetime expense).
For patients covered by health insurance, tests sometimes are done at no charge to the patient. If not, typical out-of-pocket expenses consist of a laboratory copay of $10 to $30 per test.
For patients not covered by health insurance, STD tests done at a doctor's office usually cost $50 to $200 each, depending on the test. For patients who do not want to visit a doctor for testing, perhaps because they do not want the testing and results to become part of their permanent medical record, private STD testing companies that do not accept health insurance offer testing for about $50 to $150 per test, depending on the disease, or a package of seven to 10 STD tests, including HIV, for about $300 to $400.
Free or discounted STD testing can be obtained at many clinics. Students usually can obtain discounted STD testing at their university health center.
For HIV, a Home Access test kit, the only brand approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but generally is not reimbursed by health insurance, usually costs between $45 and $60. With this test, you collect a blood sample at home, then mail it to a laboratory and speak to a counselor on the phone to get your results.
Many insurance plans cover tests for some STDs as part of a yearly or routine wellness exam, or for high-risk patients, such as those with multiple partners, or if ordered by a doctor as a result of symptoms.
Testicular cancer accounts for up to 2% of cancers diagnosed in men. It is estimated that there will be 8590 new diagnoses of testicular cancer and 360 men will die of testicular cancer in 2012. The highest incidence of testicular cancer occurs in Caucasian males ages 20-34. Men ages 35-39 and ages 15-19 are the second and third highest affected age groups, respectively.
Monthly testicular self-exams (TSE) are the most important way to detect a tumor early. A TSE is best done after a warm bath or shower when the skin of the scrotum is relaxed. You should look for any changes in appearance and then carefully examine each testicle by rolling it between the fingers and thumbs of both hands to check for any lumps. While many lumps are benign, a high percentage of testicular masses are cancerous. It is critical to meet with an urologist to get an accurate diagnosis.
Additional information about Testicular Cancer
Testicular cancer is a cancer that develops in one or both testicles of young men. It accounts for up to 2% of cancers diagnosed in men. Men have a 1:270 chance of developing testicular cancer in their lifetime. The highest incidence of testicular cancer occurs in Caucasian males ages 20-34. Men ages 35-39 and ages 15-19 are the second and third highest affected age groups, respectively. It is estimated that there will be 8590 new diagnoses of testicular cancer and 360 men will die of testicular cancer in 2012.
Most testicular cancers are caused by germ cells. Germ cells are the cells in the scrotum that produce sperm. There are two main types of cancer that develops from these germ cells. They are seminomas and non-seminomas.
Classic seminomas are 95% of these cancers and they occur in men ages 25 and 45 years of age. The rate of seminoma testicular cancer has been increasing in the United States and new cases are being identified every day.
Non seminomas are germ cells tumors that occur in men between the ages of 18 – 30 years of age.
Testicular cancer is the most treatable cancer and with early treatment and detection men have a 1: 5000 chance of dying from the disease. The best step in prevention is to know your body and changes associated with it. Most testicular cancers can be found in the early stages by self-testicular exams. Monthly testicular self-exams (TSE) are the most important way to detect a tumor early. A TSE is best done after a warm bath or shower when the skin of the scrotum is relaxed. You should look for any changes in appearance and then carefully examine each testicle by rolling it between the fingers and thumbs of both hands to check for any lumps. While many lumps are benign, a high percentage of testicular masses are cancerous. If you feel something abnormal, make a doctor’s appointment and have it checked out. Any concern is a valid concern.
Risk factors for testicular cancer
There are many risk factors associated with testicular cancer such as race, family history and undescended testicles. These are unavoidable and development of the disease is not preventable.
Race and Age
Although this cancer affects all men, Caucasian men have the highest risk to develop the disease. The chance of Caucasian men to develop testicular cancer is five times higher than that of African American men and three times higher than Hispanic men.
A family history of testicular cancer raises your chances of having testicular cancer. Once a man develops the disease there is an increased chance that his brothers or his sons with develop the disease also, but there is a 3% chance that it will happen in these families.
The term undescended testicles may be used to describe the failure of one or both testicles to descend from the abdomen and move into the scrotum. Men who have this condition are more likely to develop testicular cancer. Most of the cancers associated with this condition occur in one testis, but it can develop in both.
Having human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gives you an increased risk of developing testicular cancer. Men that have acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) have an even higher chance of developing this particular cancer.