Student Learning Outcomes
The following listing of skills required by the Standards for Advanced Specialty Education Programs in Endodontics are assessed through seminars, examinations, one-on-one discussions, papers, presentations, laboratory exercises, mock board exercises, and clinical care on patients.
The graduate will demonstrate applied knowledge and clinical skills in the following areas:
- Anatomy of soft and hard tissues of the head and neck with particular emphasis on the teeth and their supporting structures.
- Embryology, histology and physiology of the pulpal/periradicular complex.
- Microbial ecology of the oral flora and the microbiologic aspects of caries, and pulpal and periradicular diseases.
- Infectious and immunologic processes in oral health and disease.
- Pathophysiology as is relates to diseases of the pulpal/periradicular complex and orofacial pain.
- Mechanisms of inflammation and wound healing with emphasis on the pulpal/periradicular/periodontal complex.
- Oral medicine and pathology as they relate to the differential diagnosis and management of clinical conditions that may require endodontic treatment.
- Pharmacotherapeutic agents used in the management of systemic diseases that may influence the management of patients requiring endodontic treatment.
- Mechanisms, interactions and effects of drugs used in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of pulpal and periradicular pathoses.
- Principles of biostatistics, research design, research methodology, scientific writing, and critical evaluation of the literature.
- Biomaterial science as it relates to endodontics.
- Collect, organize, analyze and interpret data from the medical and dental histories and clinical evaluation to determine their relationship to the patient's endodontic treatment.
- Perform tests and clinical examinations and interpret the significance of the data in the differential diagnosis of clinical conditions arising from injury to the pathosis of pulp and periradicular tissues.
- Expose, process and interpret radiographs and/or take and interpret digital images.
- Establish differential interpretations of lesions and normal anatomic structures through radiographs or digital images.
- Formulate a diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment plan for conditions that require endodontic treatment in support of the total oral health of the patient, requesting information/consultation from other healthcare professionals as needed.
- Provide appropriate emergency treatment to relieve pain and resolve infections of endodontic origin.
- Recognize and manage, or prevent, endodontic pain and associated anxiety using physical, chemical and psychological modalities.
- Provide nonsurgical and surgical endodontic treatment.
- Retreat endodontically-treated teeth using both non-surgical and surgical techniques.
- Evaluate the results of endodontic treatment and determine whether additional evaluation/treatment is required.
- Provide space for intraradicular restorations and cores in endodontically treated teeth.
- Communicate to patients the nature of their endodontic conditions and the value of treatment to their overall oral health.
- Communicate with other health care professionals, interpreting their assessments and integrating this information into the treatment of the patient.
- Provide vital pulp therapy.
- Perform root-end closure procedures.
- Evaluate, diagnose and manage traumatic injuries to teeth and their supporting structures.
- Provide endodontic treatment for the medically compromised patient.
- Develop a differential diagnosis of orofacial pain.
- Diagnose and treat periodontal disease and defects in conjunction with the treatment of the specific tooth undergoing endodontic therapy; treatment should be provided in consultation with the individuals who will assume the responsibility for the completion or supervision of any additional periodontal maintenance or treatment.
- Place intraradicular restorations and cores in endodontically treated teeth; when the patient is referred, this treatment is accomplished in consultation with the restorative dentist.
- Perform non-surgical and surgical endodontic procedures using microscopy.
- Perform intracoronal bleaching procedures.
- The history of endodontics, teaching methodology, ethics.
- Endodontic endosseous implants, osseointegrated implants and techniques for placement of implants, and orthodontic extrusion procedures.
- Satisfactory completion of all clinical and basic science core courses as outlined for the endodontic curriculum.
- Satisfactory completion of all endodontic courses and seminars.
Achievement of clinical competency in endodontics.
Grades of at least "B" in all basic and clinical sciences and endodontic courses. Courses that are audited will require 100% attendance and residents will be tested on course content during the annual endodontic oral and written examinations. Failure by any resident to meet the 100% attendance requirement for any audited courses will result in written and/or oral examinations in those courses at the discretion of the Program Director. Residents are entitled to due process in accordance with guidelines contained in the Student Handbook on Academic and Other Policies.
The goal for each resident is to complete at least 200 clinical endodontic cases. These cases will include, but not be limited to, the following: nonsurgical, surgical, retreatment, vital pulp treatment, apexification, trauma, medically compromised, endo-perio, restoration of endodontically treated teeth, and bleaching. The cases treated should include as many and as varied types of cases, in order to give the broadest exposure and experience necessary to graduate as the best qualified endodontist. A list of all cases will be maintained by the resident. The completed cases will be reviewed on a monthly and quarterly basis by the Program Director. An annual report of all cases is due July 1.
A series of 24 completely documented cases, representing various types of treatment accomplished by the student. These cases will submitted in a written format using the format of the American Board of Endodontics. These cases will be placed in a binder suitable for placement in the Endodontic Library, complete with slides, photomicrographs of the biopsy, and all pertinent radiographs (including recalls). These cases are due as established on the resident schedule.
Documented research. A suitable project approved by the Research Advisors and the Program Director, conduct of the research, collection of data, analysis of results, and preparation of a manuscript suitable for submission to a refereed journal must be completed before the conclusion of the program. If, for whatever reason, a waiver is granted by the Program Director for an extension of the submission deadline date, the resident may forfeit the right of first-authorship. A request to submit the research findings at the oral research presentations at the Annual Session of the AAE is required.
Attendance at all scheduled classes, seminars, clinics, and meetings is mandatory. Attendance is also required for all consultant lecturers established by the Program Director or the person he has delegated this responsibility. This may involve an occasional evening or weekend event. Absences will not be acceptable and will be reflected in a lowering of course grades on the semester evaluation report, and could result in additional assignments such as written literature review reports.